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Edited by Lukasz Gruszczynski

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Edited by Lukasz Gruszczynski

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Jos Boertjens, Johan van Manen, Misja Mikkers and Wolf Sauter

Because the risk of ill health is part of the human condition, there is a universal interest in providing access to high-quality healthcare while controlling the sacrifices that are necessary to obtain it – after all, the funds used for healthcare cannot be allocated to alternative uses. Affordability is therefore an important consideration that is closely linked to access. Quality determines the health value of the treatment provided. Arriving at a social consensus on how to achieve these goals is difficult, however, which in most countries leads to intense debate on healthcare, as the contributions to this book regarding the US, South Africa, Colombia and the Netherlands all illustrate. Unsurprisingly, there is no one particular healthcare system that meets all three of the needs identified above perfectly. Instead, there is a wide variety of such systems, each with different advantages, disadvantages and trade-offs. Hence it is important that data on the problems encountered are collected and analysed, and that learning occurs between different health systems. This is a practical as well as a scientific challenge, because hitherto most studies on healthcare regulation have not taken a comparative perspective based on comparable data. In fact, in many respects, no such data yet exists. This book charts hospital financing across the three dimensions of access, affordability and quality. It does so based on an international comparison spanning four different continents. For the purpose of our project, we have collected 11 country reports, compiled by national experts according to a standard structure. In addition, six thematic chapters are included that explore specific questions. The invited authors include academics and practitioners (primarily, but not exclusively, policymakers).

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Jos Boertjens and Mary Guy

In this chapter the authors compare the health care systems of England and the Netherlands with respect to contracting, accountability frameworks and the duty to provide care and access to health care. The objectives of contracting are different in these two countries. While in the Netherlands contracting is envisaged to promote efficiency and quality, contracting in England appears to set a minimum requirement. Under the Dutch system, the insurer must fulfill its duty to provide care. In England it is difficult to hold any party accountable for ensuring that patients receive necessary care. Various types of co-payments and out-of-pocket charges occur in both England and the Netherlands. In both countries personal care budgets exist to put patients in charge of their own budgets.

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Edited by Israel Doron and Nena Georgantzi

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Edited by Israel Doron and Nena Georgantzi

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Israel (Issi) Doron and Nena Georgantzi

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Eva Ryrstedt

Throughout the world, there is a quest for autonomy, regardless of any disability; thus also for indivuals suffering from dementia. This quest is founded in various international instruments. However, the chapter also emphasizes the notion of protection – against exploitation, violence and abuse. The way to resolve what appears to be an incoherence is widely debated. This chapter addresses the international doctrine in the area, trying to establish how autonomy can be understood and reached for a person afflicted by dementia, as well as the concurrence of autonomy and protection. Dementia, autonomy, protection, independence, support, elder law doctrine

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Kirk Scott

The world’s population is ageing at a rapid and increasing rate. This chapter discusses the challenges that developing countries face as a consequence of growing shares of the population above retirement age. The chapter discusses reasons why commonly advanced solutions to the ageing challenge are not likely to help. Increasing migration is discussed as a non-solution, as is fertility increase and raising taxes. The most likely solution will be found in a combination of increasing the statutory retirement age and encouraging increased labour force participation among those in working ages. Population ageing, demography, retirement, replacement migration, elderly, pensions

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Judy Fudge

What is the impact on older workers of elevating the prohibition against discrimination on the basis of age to a constitutional right? This chapter examines how two constitutional courts, the Canadian Supreme Court and the Court of Justice of the European Union, treat cases in which older workers allege discrimination on the basis of age. It argues that a comparative approach to this question assists us in determining the significance of the fundamental status of the prohibition against age discrimination, as well as its impact on interpretation of statutory prohibitions against discrimination against older workers. Constitution, Canada, European Union, age discrimination