Browse by title

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 73 items :

  • Technology and ICT x
  • Urban and Regional Studies x
  • Chapters/Articles x
Clear All Modify Search
You do not have access to this content

Sander Faber and Marina van Geenhuizen

This chapter investigates adoption of medical technology in the form of eHealth solutions in hospitals. A model of organizational eHealth adoption is developed and empirically explored using a survey among hospitals in cities in the Netherlands and structural equation modelling (SEM). Technology adoption is seen as a process in different stages, revealing a high level of interest (about 60 per cent of hospitals) but very limited actual adoption (ranging from 6 per cent to 23 per cent). Furthermore, adoption levels tend to be higher in larger cities, and this is confirmed by significant direct influence of urban size on eHealth adoption. Other important factors tend to be organizational readiness and top management of hospitals, but these are not affected by urban size. The results leave the question open as to what makes hospitals in large cities more often adopt new technology if this is not mediated by hospital size and other organizational characteristics.

You do not have access to this content

Hans Jeekel

This chapter investigates innovation in urban passenger transport and clarifies how cities play a leading role. By focusing on liveability, intelligent systems management and new mobility, single innovations are discussed and the results summarized in a matrix. The most important ‘initiators’ are city governments, citizen groups, public transport authorities and universities, with the enterprise world somewhat lagging until recently. On the physical side, larger cities create more inventions and high density plays a role in feasibility of public transport. Universities are important, as is a historical city centre. On the social side, a well-educated population wishing to continue living in the city enhances innovation, but in some developing countries the electorate which does not own cars appears to be important. Also helpful are city governments acting on openness and trust and active political leaders. Furthermore, the early adopting cities often faced a crisis in mobility or failure of projects.

You do not have access to this content

Pieter E. Stek

This chapter presents a bibliometric study identifying clusters (cities) that are ‘champions’ in acceleration of invention in solar photovoltaics (PV), using patent analysis. The number of inventions has increased rapidly in the past decades, particularly since 2003. In this process, leading clusters change, in part, over time. Some have held their position since 2000 – Tokyo, Osaka, Seoul and Taipei in East Asia, and San Jose in the US – whereas most high-performing clusters in the US have somewhat lost their position, for example Los Angeles. Over time, there is an increased spread of inventive performance in PV technology across the world. To improve understanding of these patterns, a regression model has been estimated. Using data from 110 clusters, it appears that agglomeration factors and relational factors are equally influential, and they also tend to reinforce each other. Leadership tends to follow from a delicate balance between the size of the cluster and size/diversity of its networks.

You do not have access to this content

Patrizio Bianchi and Sandrine Labory

Chapter 6 concludes the book by summarising the main ideas and pointing to the main issues that should be further examined in this era of digital globalisation spurred by the fourth industrial revolution. One issue is the generalisation of the specific case of comprehensive industrial policy as that implemented in the Emilia-Romagna region. Another issue regards privacy and monopoly power in the new industrial system.

You do not have access to this content

Patrizio Bianchi and Sandrine Labory

Chapter 5 puts together the analysis carried out in previous chapters to discuss the industrial policy implications of the fourth industrial revolution. The main idea is that manufacturing revolutions call for comprehensive industrial policy. A focus is made on industrial policy at the regional level, and it is shown, through the experience of the Emilia-Romagna region in Italy, that regions have a role to play in designing and implementing comprehensive industrial policies effective in preparing their industries and population for the industrial revolution. It is argued that in times of important change the objective of industrial policy should be resilience, namely the capacity of the economy and the society to adapt.

You do not have access to this content

Freek Kuipéri, Marina van Geenhuizen and Jan Anne Annema

This chapter explores important uncertainties faced by cities in designing a charging infrastructure for electric vehicles (EVs), and it provides important ingredients for adaptive policy making. Uncertainty stems from future EV demand, new/improved technology concerning batteries, charging equipment and alternative fuel, and integration of EV batteries as a storage medium in smart energy systems. The chapter illustrates these uncertainties using scenario-analysis of demand for charging infrastructure, including the level of city quarters. Furthermore, large cities in the Netherlands tend to be slightly more ambitious with regard to EV policy than smaller cities, but there may be differences between large cities in different countries, for example Stockholm and Amsterdam. The chapter closes by presenting an adaptive policy making framework, given the uncertainty in national policies impacting on demand for EV cars, in integrating EVs in larger systems of renewable energy, and in arrangements concerning exploitation of charging stations.

You do not have access to this content

Suvi Konsti-Laakso, Satu Pekkarinen and Helinä Melkas

In this chapter, living labs are perceived as open networks through which new innovations can be developed. The study deals with innovation in the public sector and examines renewal of well-being services for citizens in a regional context, such as establishment of a social enterprise for mental and addiction rehabilitees; use of a service robot in public elderly care; new ways for dentists to increase participation of teenagers in dental care. Using a multiple case study design, a cross-section of 14 living lab initiatives in Lahti (Finland) is analysed and the outcomes presented. Four different outcome categories are identified and analysed: access, windows, new solutions and new capabilities. Specific attention is given to outcomes for utilisers. Furthermore, the results contribute to an improved understanding of regional living lab activities and key conditions for their success, as well as the success of public sector health services, often as an institutional innovation.

You do not have access to this content

Patrizio Bianchi and Sandrine Labory

Chapter 2 examines the previous industrial revolutions, showing not only the important technological innovations introduced in each of them but also the deep impact they have on the society and culture. The main reason is that industrial revolutions are primarily transitions in prevailing production processes, or manufacturing regimes. Industrial revolutions are very complex phenomena and this has to be taken into account in the analysis of the fourth industrial revolution and its policy implications. Particular attention is paid to the deep changes in educational systems associated with industrial revolutions, as this might be a lesson in policy for the current – fourth – industrial revolution.

You do not have access to this content

Patrizio Bianchi and Sandrine Labory

Chapter 3 analyses the fourth industrial revolution: what technological innovations are involved, to what extent the speed of change in this revolution is faster than in previous revolutions, the impact on manufacturing systems and the position and efforts of different countries in this deep transformation. An important characteristic of this revolution is that data seems to be the raw material of this new development phase. Digitalisation and hyperconnection are thus key transforming strategic elements of socio-economic systems, and industry in particular. A new manufacturing regime seems to be emerging, after mass production and flexible production of the second and third revolutions respectively, namely mass customisation.

You do not have access to this content

Stephan Diek, Marina van Geenhuizen and Bart van Hulst

The chapter introduces a novel financial arrangement in healthcare services: Health Impact Bonds (HIBs). Transition aims at making healthcare services not only more affordable but also more efficient, the reason why HIBs focus on the performance (output) side of services (pay-for-success contract). The chapter describes the urgency and challenges in moving towards illness prevention, on the system (healthcare) and project levels. Next, it is explored how HIBs can improve situations of care investment that does not (fully) precipitate at the investor while preventing the rise of new problematic situations. Accordingly, a preliminary list of conditions is designed for the alignment of HIBs. Overall, it seems that HIBs provide substantial solutions by combining new contracts on paying-for-success in performance and a shared savings contract, although some questions remain regarding the involvement of investors. The concluding section includes a reflection on city involvement in HIBs.