Refugees across the globe face serious food and livelihood constraints. This chapter presents and discusses characteristics of the refugee population who may benefit most from the introduction of climate-smart agriculture technologies in Lebanon and Jordan. This chapter shows that refugees are in all contexts among the poorest and their livelihoods are vulnerable. It also shows that frontier agriculture technologies (FAT) provides an opportunity to promote entrepreneurship and can improve well-being, including nutritional status for people that are less integrated into the labor market. FAT is sustainable and can leverage scarce resources, such as water (FAT use less water than traditional agriculture) and arable land (FAT does not require arable land), and promote economic activities that increase access to nutritious food, improve livelihoods, create jobs, promote entrepreneurship, enhance skills, and build social cohesion.
Browse by title
Dorte Verner and Edinaldo Tebaldi
Larry A. Swatuk
How humans have used and misused water is the story of civilization itself. Water is paradoxical - it is ever-renewable but often scarce - and humanity's relationship to it is often contradictory. Although water is essential and non-substitutable it is often taken for granted. While it is finite and fugitive, humans flock to cities and expand agricultural enterprises as if the water will always be there in abundance. The challenges for water security are many and varied, and go to the heart of social organization. The chapter argues that seeing 'security' through different lenses reveals different sets of threats and vulnerabilities. Changing the referent object - the state, individuals, the environment - changes the context for action. Given water's central role in building political and economic power, 'water security' is generally tied to the security of the sovereign state. Actions taken in support of securing water for the state generally involve a confluence of political, economic and technical power. Over the last several decades, numerous attempts have been made to structure action in support of the greater social and environmental good. A variety of discursive framings have emerged to drive collective action. Yet, the legal and institutional frameworks for action remain state-centric, not only in terms of the primary beneficiary of water security, but in terms of the ontological framework for seeing security and insecurity. As shown in the chapter, limited formal space has been created for civil society participation, and for alternative perspectives and approaches to water security to emerge. The chapter concludes that despite numerous attempts to draw the world toward new ways of seeing water, deeply embedded interests, practices and processes ensure that efforts in support of 'water security' will continue to yield highly uneven outcomes: security for some, insecurity for many.
John D. Graham
This Handbook of Public Transport Research aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the latest research in a growing field: the field of research on urban public transport. The quantity of public transport related research papers has doubled in the last nine years. Why? For two reasons. First, researchers have been increasingly inspired by the topic. It is an applied and practical topic affecting the quality of life of billions of people. It is also a field with significant challenges, seeking new and original solutions. These challenges range from the difficult interface of engineering, operations and human perceptions in user satisfaction and performance management, to the tricky balance between prudent financial management, operations planning and the social access goals making subsidies essential. These challenges require a multi-disciplinary perspective to wicked problems in Engineering, Planning, Psychology and Design, which is why the field is intellectually as well as tactically challenging. The foundation of many of these challenges is the conflicting congestion and environmental relief, and the social equity objectives that justify public transport in cities.
Tao Liu and Avishai (Avi) Ceder
In this chapter we refer to the public transport (PT) operations planning process of a fixed-route system such as bus, rail and passenger ferries. This process commonly includes four basic components, divided into three different levels and usually performed in sequence: (1) network design; (2) timetable development; (3) vehicle scheduling; and (4) crew scheduling and rostering. The framework of this process is shown in Figure 18.1. It is preferable that all four activities be planned simultaneously in order to exploit system capability to the greatest extent and maximize system productivity and efficiency (Ceder 2016). However, since this integrated planning process is extremely cumbersome and complex, especially for medium and large-scale PT agencies, separated treatment is required for each component, with the outcome of one fed as an input into the next component. From the perspective of PT agencies, the highest cost items in the budget are vehicle capital and operating costs, driver wages and fringe benefits. Therefore, it is not surprising to learn that most of the commercially available PT scheduling software packages concentrate primarily on vehicle and crew scheduling activities. In the last fifty years, a considerable amount of effort has been invested in the computerization of the above four components in order to provide more efficient, controllable and responsive PT services. This chapter focuses on the third PT operations-planning component: vehicle scheduling, which is one of the problems at the operational-planning level. The PT vehicle scheduling problem (VSP) refers to the problem of determining the optimal allocation of vehicles to carry out all the trips of a given timetable. A chain of trips is assigned to each vehicle, although some of them may be deadheading (DH) or empty trips in order to attain optimality. The assignment of vehicle chains to garages should be determined in an efficient manner. The major objective of the PT VSP is to minimize fleet size or, correspondingly, to minimize the total cost comprised of fixed costs (acquisition, salaries, administration, etc.) and variable costs (maintenance, fuels, supplies, etc.). The number of feasible solutions to this problem is extremely high, especially in the case of multiple depots.
Claire O'Manique, James K Rowe and Karena Shaw
Endless economic growth on a finite planet is impossible. This is the premise behind the degrowth movement. Despite this sound rationale, the degrowth movement has struggled to gain political acceptability. We have sought to understand this limited uptake of degrowth discourse in the English-speaking world by interviewing Canadian activists. Activists have a proximity to the political realm – both with its barriers and openings – that scholars working primarily in academic institutions sometimes lack. Our interviews reveal that class interests – particularly those of fossil fuel companies – are a substantial barrier to realizing degrowth goals. Interviewees highlighted the importance of centring class-conscious environmentalism, ‘anti-purity’ politics, and decolonization as essential parts of a degrowth agenda capable of overcoming these class interests. We conclude by unpacking how the Green New Deal – a discourse and movement that gained considerable traction after we completed our interviews – addresses the obstacles shared by our interviewees, thus making it a promising ‘non-reformist reform’ for the degrowth movement to pursue.