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Athena Vakali and Vaia Moustaka

The penetration of social media and various digital technologies into daily life empowers both administrative actors and citizens to create new frameworks for interaction and multi-stakeholder collaboration and contributes effectively to the generation, acquisition and diffusion of information, which is valuable for urban dynamics detection and efficient cities monitoring and management. This chapter deals with the content generated by users through digital technologies and investigates its exploitation in the realization of the smart cities vision. The user-centric ways in which users participate in the creation of content are discussed, while a systematic literature review summarizing the issues that have been addressed through the exploitation of user-generated content, the means used for its creation, and the methods used for its analysis, is presented. Moreover, a novel framework for tourism and road passenger transport is proposed, which aspires to exploit the user-generated content shared by users during both their direct and asynchronous communication.

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Valeria Loscri, Nathalie Mitton and Riccardo Petrolo

With the increase of their population, cities must adapt to offer more efficient services and better life quality. ICT and Internet of Things are among the technologies that enable smarter transportation, waste collection, energy and resource management, etc. But this does not come at no cost and new services arise through the collection and processing of a large set of distributed and ubiquitous data. This chapter discusses the requirements needed to achieve a smart city, identifying the main technical challenges in the heterogeneity of devices, data, networks, protocols, and standards. To overcome these limitations, the authors propose their vision of a Cloud of Meshed Cooperative heterogeneous Things (CoMCoT). CoMCoT aims to enable every traditional city’s entity (node, user, and provider) to be exposed and consumed as a service. Beyond traditional Cloud of Things (CoT) services such as data abstraction and mutualization, the CoMCoT provides more holistic functionalities by aiming at full interoperability.

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Nicos Komninos and Anastasia Panori

Smart cities offer a suitable environment for the creation of smart ecosystems by gathering organizations over digital platforms. Smart ecosystems produce externalities similar to spatial agglomerations, and act as environments of intelligence and problem-solving. This chapter identifies a four-layer structure of city intelligence that is generated in smart cities: (i) human intelligence encompassing human abilities and social interaction; (ii) artificial intelligence working complementary to human capabilities, encompassing data collection, mining and analytics; (iii) collective intelligence generated through user engagement and the population of digital spaces; and (iv) collaborative intelligence referring to open innovation, co-creation and co-design in institutions and systems of innovation. Smart cities develop a connected intelligence space, including dimensions of ‘human ability’, ‘artificial modelling’, ‘collectiveness’ and ‘collaboration’. Significant forces that act as connectors in this approach are awareness, collaboration, and positive externalities. Within smart city environments, organizations instead of being part of an established ecosystem have the capacity to build their own smart ecosystem on physical, institutional and digital spaces.

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Luca Mora, Alasdair Reid and Margarita Angelidou

In critically reflecting upon the first three decades of research on smart city development, this chapter exposes the division affecting this fast-emerging knowledge domain. This activity builds on a group of studies that the authors undertook between 2017 and 2018 in order to investigate the mechanisms of knowledge production shaping the intellectual structure of smart city research. In this chapter, these studies and their findings are examined. A synopsis is offered which captures the significance of the insights into the current state of smart city research that they have brought together. The significance of these studies lies in their ability to expose the absence of consensus in regard to selecting an approach to effectively manage smart city development, a condition which undermines smart city practice and the potential to deliver urban sustainability.

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Margarita Angelidou and Luca Mora

The smart city aspects that tackle physical structure and form, such as spatial planning, are largely understudied. Out of the currently existing smart cities, most are insufficiently adapted to their physical and sociotechinical context. Addressing these shortcomings, this chapter identifies the possible classifications and typologies of spatial planning for smart city development by means of case study research. The research focuses on ‘star’ cases of smart cities, particularly Vienna, Thessaloniki, Stockholm, India’s smart cities, the Multimedia Super Corridor, Heraklion and Amsterdam. The authors identify two typologies of spatial planning in a smart city framework. The first one is based on urban functions and land uses, the overarching district character and the technical infrastructure that is aimed to be enhanced. The second typology is based on the spatial scale and includes the following classifications: national scale, regional – metropolitan scale, municipality – local scale and distributed or project-based scale.

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Ioannis Tsampoulatidis, Dimitrios Bechtsis and Ioannis Kompatsiaris

The smart city concept gives prominence to the use of ICT for enabling the digital transformation of established public services, processes and policies. This roadmap started from the e-Gov 1.0 initiative and spans to the e-Gov 3.0 phase with special focus on interconnected citizens, smart and interconnected devices, big data analytics and cloud computing. As the smart cities initiative flourishes there is an overwhelming need for robust, secure and flexible solutions that will pave the way to citizens’ participation and inclusion. The proposed Blockchain Framework will not only facilitate acceptance of new governance models from the official stakeholders, but it will also dynamically identify, create and propose new policies, regulations and initiatives according to social trends and the citizens’ maturity level. It takes into consideration social, environmental and economic aspects as well as established policies and good practices for proposing solutions to stakeholders.

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Hans Schaffers

The concept of smart cities is a response to the challenges faced by cities to meet broadly shared societal objectives regarding socio-economic development, quality of life and resilience. The promise of the smart city concept is to create an environment of open, participative and citizen-centric innovation based on sharing of knowledge and resources for experimenting innovative solutions for urban development. The last twenty years witnessed a wide range of smart city concepts, experiments and practices, balancing between technological and social innovation perspectives and between corporate and citizen-centric stakeholder orientations. Growing emphasis is on creating and nurturing urban innovation ecosystems comprising an environment of cooperation, experimentation and learning rather than planning and implementation of smart city solutions. Realizing the promise of the smart city vision requires the creation of open, participative and sustainable forms of cooperation among stakeholders to breed and nurture such ecosystems as key infrastructures for urban development.

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Christina Kakderi

This chapter focuses on the different ‘zero initiatives’ that have recently emerged in the literature. By investigating the main components of three different zero-related policies – zero deaths from traffic accidents, zero crime and zero waste – it aims to identify areas of common ground and establish their conceptual and practical integration. The chapter shows that although the core elements of such strategies are rooted in the intersection and developments of each specific science and policy area, they all share some common principles and methodological steps. Also, the systemic, complex and ambitious character of vision zero strategies couple them to smart city technologies and infrastructure which can provide significant added value to traditional solutions and efforts in dealing with urban problems. By combining these two discourses, the chapter finds connections between smart city developments with vision zero related methodological guidelines with the aim to facilitate their diffusion to different urban settings and city domains.

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Nicos Komninos, Anastasia Panori and Christina Kakderi

Smart cities emerge from collaboration technologies (IoT, social media, blockchain), data science and AI. The algorithmic logic, under which these technologies operate, can be much more effective if combined with other sources of intelligence available in cities, such as human intelligence, creativity and innovation, collective and collaborative intelligence within institutions or over platforms. Along this line of thought, the first part of the book brings together authors that discuss the academic establishment of the smart city paradigm as outcome of collaborative endeavour rather than algorithms and automation. The second part focuses on major technologies that allow collaborative initiatives to develop at large scale. Smart cities are a technological construct driven by information technologies and embedded smart objects, but also a complex cyber-physical system in which cities, knowledge processes, and digital technologies are blended to generate new solutions. The third part of the book looks into the governance of smart cities, and mainly how technologies and digital platforms allow for citizen engagement and the setting of collaboration networks that generate innovations for better cities.

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Jeroen Oskam

This chapter analyses how the concept of ‘sharing’ relates to the smart city paradigm. Theories on ‘sharing’ and on smart cities have discursive resemblances, as both seek to connect communities, to empower residents and to promote the efficient use of resources. However, if we look at the actual practice of what is known as ‘sharing’, rather than taking the prescriptive perspective of what it ought to be, this practice may contradict its original inspiration and, therefore, the purpose of smart cities. The chapter will look at the origins and development of Uber and Airbnb, analyse their growth dynamics as ‘multisided platforms’ as well as their influence on incumbents and their negative externalities. The conclusion is that platforms rely on secrecy as a strategic weapon, and that they disempower citizens by contributing to the commodification of their neighbourhoods.