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Mikaela Backman, Charlie Karlsson and Orsa Kekezi
Mabel Lu Miao
China’s new talent strategy has received growing and considerable attention from the scholarly community, practitioners and policymakers. Talent plays an important role in modernizing China in various key aspects. Unfortunately, amid the current global talent mobility wave, comprehensive understanding of talent management and its impact on China’s socioeconomic development and exchanges with the rest of the world remains limited. To address this gap, we provide an overview of China’s return migration and articulate its implications for contemporary Chinese society by presenting recent empirical evidence bearing on this issue. In so doing, we reveal the driving forces for Chinese returnees, from both the macro-level perspective by applying the push and pull theoretical lens, and from the micro-level perspective by identifying the role of social capital and improving career prospects in emerging economies like China.
Unprecedented growth and circulation of Chinese international students cannot be fully understood unless the roles of host societies including diaspora Chinese communities are taken into account. This chapter draws attention to a phenomenon of local engagement, a process of interconnections and interactions between Chinese students and local communities, leading to a co-development of both Chinese students and diaspora Chinese communities in host countries. The links and impacts of Chinese student mobility in local communities can be seen from the landscape change of Chinese communities in England since the twenty-first century. Accordingly, this chapter aims to address two questions: Why is local engagement important for Chinese student development in destinations? What are the impacts on the development and transformation of diaspora Chinese communities? Empirical evidence are based upon the combination of official data sources (UK Census and higher education statistics) analysis and a questionnaire survey conducted on Nottingham’s Chinese community. Policy implications for global talent training and co-development with diaspora Chinese communities are discussed.
Dimitris Assimakopoulos, Maria Tsouri, Dimitris Mavridis and Alan Moore
In this chapter we focus on the invisible social structure of a leading ICT ecosystem sustaining a knowledge cluster in microelectronics, embedded software and nanotechnology, around Grenoble, France. Minalogic fosters key enabling technologies underpinning growth and competitiveness, from its beginning in 2005 and up to now. We map the network architecture of the Minalogic cluster through 107 collaborative projects supported by both government and industry, for the past decade or so. We use social network analysis and visualization to identify and pinpoint the key actors in the socio-technical networks that underpin and drive collaborative innovation in France and beyond. The centrality measures and ‘small world’ connectivity of the ecosystem highlight the leading role that a public research center, CEA Grenoble, plays in the ongoing development of this ICT ecosystem. We also discuss the role of ‘new Argonauts,’ such as Presto Engineering, returnees from Silicon Valley with operations in France and Israel, who occupy peripheral positions in the Minalogic cluster.
Fiona Sussan, Louis Daily and Ki-Chan Kim
Emerging from the devastation of the Second World War and the Korean War with poverty, high illiteracy, lack of resources and competencies, South Korea transformed itself from being one of the poorest of nations to become one of the Four Asian Tigers. This is the ‘Miracle of the Han.’ In the past half century, South Korea began as a recipient of OECD’s ODA and became a donor to ODA. Today, South Korea has a creative economy with the nation being ranked number one in innovation by the OECD in 2014. As creativity and innovation are often synonymous with entrepreneurship, this chapter aims to examine the entrepreneurship ecosystem of South Korea longitudinally for the past half-century. This chronological narrative describes the evolution of the entrepreneurial ecosystem, specifically economic policy, human capital and market forces, from the 1960s to the present. We discover a number of systematic patterns over time that shape the current entrepreneurial status of the country. We conclude with recommendations for improving the entrepreneurial ecosystem in the future.
Tea Petrin and Yin Mon Myint
This research examines different experience of four European regions in generating dynamic spin-off activities. Based on case study research at four European universities – the University of Cambridge, UK; KU Leuven, Belgium; ETH Zurich, Switzerland; and TU Munich, Germany – we examine the relative importance of university as an institution in spin-off creation and the role of specific social and environmental factors that may hinder or foster the university spin-off process. We also examine the difference between various dimensions of spin-off process between the Anglo-Saxon and continental approach, the latter receiving, much less scholarly attention than the former. The results indicate that irrespective of the four locations the university spin-off process is significantly affected by university attributes such as university leadership, the degree of university’s entrepreneurial culture, access to university resources both inside and outside the university, stimulative incentive system, and engagement of professors as mentors or as academic entrepreneurs to graduates and would-be entrepreneurs. In addition, university’s close relationship with other entrepreneurial elements that together form an entrepreneurial ecosystem in which spin-offs can develop and flourish contributes not only to the development of the university entrepreneurial culture but also within the larger community, which positively reinforces that of universities and thus further enhances spin-off creation at universities. This analysis reveals quite distinctive outcomes regarding the characteristics of spin-off phenomenon between the Anglo-Saxon and Continental approach. The results indicate that the central mechanism in the emergence of high tech clusters is not necessarily the entrepreneurial activity, as has been often argued in the past. Instead, the emergence of high-tech clusters can be attributed to key individuals at the university or working in partnership with local players, which was the case at Leuven, Munich and Zurich. In addition, the findings suggests that support infrastructure and entrepreneurial recycling is not necessarily the by-product of spin-off phenomenon but is instead contingent on the active role of key individuals at the university and at local level, which again was the case at Leuven, Munich and Zurich. Finally, irrespective of the locations examined, the findings suggest the government plays an indispensable role in facilitating university spin-off creation.