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Christopher May

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Justin D. Macinante

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Edited by Theodoros Zachariadis, Janet E. Milne, Mikael Skou Andersen and Hope Ashiabor

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Paul Ekins

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Edited by Theodoros Zachariadis, Janet E. Milne, Mikael Skou Andersen and Hope Ashiabor

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Antony W. Dnes

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Antony W. Dnes

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Rebecca S. Eisenberg

An anticommons is a fragmented allocation of property rights in which resources are prone to underuse because it is costly to assemble necessary permissions to put resources to use. The more rights holders and the more varied their entitlements, the more challenging it is to avoid waste through bargaining. The patent system continuously creates new rights for new claimants, with limited opportunity to establish consensus valuations as technology changes. Patent aggregation might seem like an effective market solution to the problem of fragmented ownership, yet the rise of patent aggregators seems to have done more to reduce costs of assertion by patent owners than to reduce costs of clearing rights by technology users. The result may be a greater risk of underuse as subsequent innovators need to evaluate and clear more rights that they might otherwise have ignored with little risk of assertion in the absence of aggregation

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Joel Waldfogel

Copyright provides monopoly grants for creators, and these rights have traditionally been protected by a combination of law and technology. Recent technological changes associated with digitization have undermined effective copyright protection by facilitating piracy. At the same time, other aspects of digitization have reduced the cost of bringing new products to market. Despite collapsing revenue to some industries, such as recorded music, the number of new creative products – in music, movies, television, and books - has risen sharply. By many measures, the value of the new products to consumers is also high. Despite the understandable concerns of many in these industries, we are currently experiencing a golden age for new