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This comprehensive Handbook brings together practical advice from leading international practitioners in sustainable tourism. This guidance is not designed as a guide for long-term academic projects, but instead applies good research design principles within the parameters of modest timeframes and resources, to provide workable and rational step-by-step approaches to researching real-life challenges. The book’s contributors unpack how to undertake environmental, socio-cultural and economic assessments that establish the feasibility for new tourism ventures, or ascertain what impacts they have had over time. The book covers fundamentals for practitioners, such as how to conduct feasibility studies and business plans, and also addresses hot topics such as visitor management and overcrowding. The processes of transferring knowledge from academic research into practical applications are also addressed. This Handbook is critical for researchers at all levels, and particularly to those working within government institutions responsible for tourism and private tourism businesses. It is also an invaluable resource for practitioners, not-for-profit organizations and consultants that provide technical support in the planning, feasibility, development, operation and evaluation of sustainable tourism.
Global governance is essential in transitioning to sustainability and to effectively implement the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. It has been argued in this context that global democracy is the only means to achieve compliance with international rules and face challenges requiring determined collective action, such as climate change. The chapter contends that in a global security perspective sustainability requires as a minimum norms and principles to be implemented in a way that decreases, or at least does not increase, inter-state tensions resulting from conflict or situations of mass atrocities. With a focus on effectively implementing the international principle of Responsibility to Protect, three key ways of realizing a more democratic mode of global governance are proposed and explained, namely: effectively incorporating the global civil society and expert communities into international decision-making; fulfilling democratic values by transnational organizations; and creating conditions for more sustainable democracy at the national level through international action.
Janette Hartz-Karp and Rob Weymouth
Current democratic decision-making appears to be appears to be showing its weakness unable to resolve complex challenges due to its competitive, combative, and individualistic nature. By contrast, strong democracy can be created through a deliberative approach which allows descriptively representative, deliberative, and influential decision-making. This better taps into people’s values and preferences to reach the common good, contextually understood. However, assumptions about the roles, rights, and capacities of government officials and the general public need to be overturned, adopting a different set enabling more ‘power with’ than ‘power over’ the people. To spread and sustain deliberative democracy, methods are suggested to scale its underlying principles and to institutionalise it.
Jeffrey R. Kenworthy
Passenger transport is a vexed problem in cities across the globe, whether in highly auto-dependent regions in the USA or Australia, more transit-oriented cities in Europe, or in Latin America, China, India and Africa with their giant, rapidly motorizing and fast-growing megacities. The work described in this chapter presents a global research enterprise, which had its origins in the late 1970s and is still ongoing today, to properly enumerate key data that describe the characteristics, strengths and weaknesses of urban passenger transportation in over 100 cities worldwide. By collecting reliable and hard-to-get data, comparative statistics for each city are calculate, e.g. per capita car use, urban density and many more. This has amassed a significant legacy of academic publications and has been used globally to help develop better cities. The chapter describes the history of this research, its methodology and examples of some output.