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Edited by Martha M Roggenkamp, Kars J de Graaf and Ruven C Fleming

The Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Law is a landmark reference work, providing definitive and comprehensive coverage of this dynamic field. The Encyclopedia is organised into 12 volumes around top-level subjects – such as water, energy and climate change – that reflect some of the most pressing issues facing us today. Each volume probes the key elements of law, the essential concepts, and the latest research through concise, structured entries written by international experts. Each entry includes an extensive bibliography as a starting point for further reading. The mix of authoritative commentary and insightful discussion will make this an essential tool for research and teaching, as well as a valuable resource for professionals and policymakers.
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David Favre

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Edited by Michael Faure

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Daisy G Tempelman

Abstract For centuries, natural gas has been one of humanity’s main energy sources. The gas sector is still heavily reliant on natural gas production; however, as natural gas fields contain only a finite quantity of gas, its continued extraction is leading to the resource’s depletion. Furthermore, natural gas production has become a subject of debate, with many considering continued utilisation incompatible with the achievement of international and European climate goals. The need for alternative gases that are less damaging to the environment is becoming increasingly evident. Biomethane has shown itself to be a reliable alternative to natural gas, and if sourced and manufactured responsibly results in no new CO2 emissions. Another alternative, hydrogen, can, through the process of methanisation, be converted into synthetic natural gas (SNG). This chapter discusses the legal aspects of the production and use of biomethane, hydrogen and SNG.
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Edited by Michael Faure

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Edited by Michael Faure

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Constantinos Yiallourides and Greg W Gordon

Abstract The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the international legal regime relating to the decommissioning of offshore oil and gas installations, with particular focus on environmental protection. The chapter is divided into four main sections. After the Introduction, the following section examines the rules governing the removal of abandoned or disused installations. The next section looks at the rules relating to the disposal of offshore installations by dumping. The following section examines the rules relating to the pollution of the marine environment arising from, or in connection with, decommissioned offshore installations. The final section before the Conclusion looks at the possibility of leaving abandoned or disused installations on the seabed to be used for other purposes, including use as artificial reefs, promoting and supporting marine biodiversity and fisheries, thus contributing to healthy marine ecosystems.
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Gijs Kreeft and Romain Mauger

In both the European Union and the United States, a legal regime for electricity storage is being created in order to unlock higher levels of renewable energy sources in the electricity system. The pressing legal issues presented in this chapter relate to the definition, classification, ownership and market participation of electricity storage in energy markets on both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean.
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Ceciel T Nieuwenhout and Hannah K Müller

With a growing number of offshore wind farms being constructed increasing distances from the shoreline, different approaches to connecting offshore wind farms must be considered. It is in this context that the development of an offshore electricity grid, connecting offshore wind farms and delivering additional benefits for the system, may be considered – and is the rationale behind such developments being investigated in both Europe and the US. The legal framework for offshore grids depends on the law of the sea and on how states make use of the competences they have at sea. In Europe, EU law provides a general framework for the interoperability of the grids in different countries and sets standards for maritime spatial planning. Other topics are addressed through the national law of the coastal states. In the US, offshore is a federal competence, with an open-door procedure for parties interested in developing offshore transmission.
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Íñigo del Guayo

Abstract Regional cooperation and energy trade in Europe is predominantly taking place under the auspices of the European Union, an organisation that can trace its origins to an energy treaty signed in post-war Europe (the 1951 Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community). The influence of European Union law relating to energy trade has been extended to other regional European organisations, such as the European Economic Area and the Energy Community. There are also examples of aspects of European Union energy law being applied to countries outside those organisations. Energy trade in the European Union aims to complete an internal energy market, with market integration and liberalisation historically viewed as the best tools to achieve this.