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Edited by Marie Aronsson-Storrier and Rasmus Dahlberg

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Emille Boulot, Anna Grear, Joshua Sterlin and Iván Darío Vargas-Roncancio

In 2020, a single virus changed many of the worlds in which humans live. From restrictions on immigration, movement and gatherings, to changes to public health policy, through to economics and housing, the SARS- CoV-2 virus restructured laws and lives. It also changed our more-than-human siblings’ worlds: some took the opportunity to roam into the quiet of the relatively human-free spaces produced by lockdown, some provided company to their humans working from home, and some, too, were susceptible to the virus.

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Edited by Panagiotis Delimatsis and Leonie Reins

The Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Law is a landmark reference work, providing definitive and comprehensive coverage of this dynamic field. The Encyclopedia is organised into 12 volumes around top-level subjects – such as water, energy and climate change – that reflect some of the most pressing issues facing us today. Each volume probes the key elements of law, the essential concepts, and the latest research through concise, structured entries written by international experts. Each entry includes an extensive bibliography as a starting point for further reading. The mix of authoritative commentary and insightful discussion will make this an essential tool for research and teaching, as well as a valuable resource for professionals and policymakers.
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Karl S. Coplan, Shelby D. Green, Katrina Fischer Kuh, Smita Narula, Karl R. Rábago and Radina Valova

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Michael Tsimplis

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Edited by Michael Faure

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Mariama Williams

Abstract Africa is a complex continent with high vulnerability to climate change and low adaptive capacity. Though it contributes the least to global greenhouse emissions, the agriculture, food and water security needs of its over 1.2 billion citizens as well as its patterns of international trade are under threat from climate change and other environmental factors. African countries are intensely involved in global, regional and national environmental and trade governance. The newly launched African Continental Free Trade Area (ACFTA) may help to enhance Africa’s trade potential and reduce its vulnerabilities, especially, if environment and climate issues are taken into consideration in its design and implementation.
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Caroline E Foster

Abstract Negotiations on a new Agreement on Climate Change, Trade and Sustainability (ACCTS) between Costa Rica, Fiji, Iceland, New Zealand, Norway and Switzerland were announced in 2019 and meetings began in 2020. The focus is on market access for environmental goods and services, reducing fossil fuel subsidies and developing guidelines for voluntary eco-labelling schemes. The Agreement is being pursued in a spirit of open plurilateralism with a view to subsequent adherence by new tranches of participants. Although negotiations have been impeded by the COVID-19 pandemic, ACCTS partners have affirmed their joint commitment to attaining a meaningful and ambitious outcome as swiftly as practicable.
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Charlotte E Blattner

Abstract The regulation of animal health has been at the forefront of states’ concerns since the beginnings of trade liberalization and is gaining in importance with the steady increase of emerging and re-emerging diseases and zoonoses thanks to globalization and climate change. Under the GATT, animal health features as a defense for a breach of obligation, whereas in the SPS Agreement, animal health is recognized as a common concern of members, to be regulated in order to guarantee food safety and avoid or eradicate pests, diseases, and other damage. The SPS recognizes states’ right to choose their own level of protection based on a risk assessment but encourages them to use the OIE’s international standards on animal health. Whether the OIE chapters on animal welfare are or should be recognized as “relevant international standards” under the SPS is subject to ongoing debates.
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Leonie Reins

Abstract Human activities associated with trade have been considered by some as profoundly altering conditions and processes on earth, in terms of their impact on the environment. The simultaneous emergence of the Anthropocene and the rules-based international economic system were, for a long time, separate developments, governed by separate fields of international law. A reconciliation of these fields of law is needed in order to govern the Anthropocene.