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M. Rezaul Islam, Niaz Ahmed Khan, Siti Hajar Abu Bakar Ah, Haris Abd Wahab and Mashitah Binti Hamidi

Fieldwork/data collection is one of the most important parts in the research process, and it is particularly important for social sciences research. A number of aspects that need to be considered by a researcher before starting data collection include: ethical permission from the concerned ethical body/committee, informed consent, contract with different stakeholders, field settings, time allocation and time management, field leading, data collection, contextual and cultural diversities, community settings, socioeconomic and psychological patterns of the community, political pattern, rapport building between data collectors and respondents, permission to access community, language and mode of data collection, power relations, role of gatekeepers, privacy and confidentiality issues, layers of expectations among researchers/respondents/ funding organization, data recording (written, memorization, voice recording and video recording), and so on. Many aspects are very difficult to understand before going into the field. Sometimes, a researcher’s previous experience about a particular community may help to gain field access, but it may be difficult to assess the field in advance due to rapid changes within people’s livelihoods and other shifts in the community. The change of a political paradigm sometimes seems also to be a challenge at the field level. We believe that although technological innovation has benefited some aspects of the data collection of fieldwork in social research, many other dimensions (mentioned above) of fieldwork endure unchanged.

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Edited by Mohammad B. Rana and Matthew M.C. Allen

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Edited by Maureen McKelvey and Jun Jin

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Edited by Songshan Huang and Ganghua Chen

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Edited by Songshan Huang and Ganghua Chen

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Peter J. Buckley and Hinrich Voss

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Peter J. Buckley and Hinrich Voss

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Peter J. Buckley and Hinrich Voss

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Subhash C. Jain and Ben L. Kedia

In 30 years, India will celebrate 100 years of independence. Based on where the nation stands today, it is reasonable to assume that in 2047, it will be counted among developed countries. India’s economy is set to become the third largest in the world behind the United States and China. Indians, by and large, are enterprising people and have a fascination for technology. With dynamic leadership, India should be able to realize its dreams for the future. The country has a free road to travel. However, there are obstacles that India must cross, both external and internal. India is located in a tense neighborhood surrounded by expansionist China and unstable Pakistan. Internally, a number of potholes may derail India’s progress such as the Naxalite insurgency, the spread of populism in some states, widespread corruption, growing inequality among the masses and dire environmental decay. Even with these problems, India’s future looks bright.

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Subhash C. Jain and Ben L. Kedia

In 1950, after three years of independence, India became a constitutional democracy. The Constitution abolished untouchability, the centuries-old lingering issue. At the same time, while Hindi was identified as the national language, for the unity of the country, for 15 years English was accorded the same status to facilitate communication between non-Hindi-speaking states/people and those who spoke Hindi. Finally, following the Constitution, the first free election was held in 1952, a remarkable feat for a country without any prior experience in the matter. After five years, the second election was held in 1957, establishing the tradition of a vibrant democracy for the future.