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In this chapter, we discuss the issue of market power in the online video field, which is arguably the most troubling aspect of this emerging online video system. We analyze the options of dealing with market power of online video platforms. They include the delegation of regulation to the industry; regulation as a public utility; provision by a public enterprise; licensing and registration; ownership restrictions; limits to foreign ownership and provision; antitrust breakup, functional separations, and unbundling; and interconnection. We concluded with a recommended “Open Video System” based on access rights to infrastructure and platform elements, where significant media market power (SMMP) exist. Such access would be accomplished through API software interfaces that must be offered by such platforms. (APIs), a way to let software by other parties interoperate with the platform’s software. Conditions of access would be governed by the non-discriminatory principle of “most favored nation,” subject to arbitration by a self-administrative process. A key role would be played by the personal information management curators. They would engage, in the consumer’s behalf, in the finding, selecting, and screening of appropriate content and infrastructure, as well as in the protection of personal data, They would be able to supply their own algorithms. Such an Open Video System does not solve all policy problems, and it needs to be limited when it comes to content or data. But it reduces the problem of market power of the platforms and its global extension. It will create, without breakups, a more competitive video cloud market. In doing so it reduces the need for detailed governmental control and oversight.
This chapter summarizes several of the analyses and empirical findings from other chapters: economic and technological drivers of change, new types of content, the emergence of video cloud providers, their market power, and their impact on other media industries and on society. This leads to a number of business and policy strategies, and to a recommended access arrangement.
In this chapter we introduce main topics covered in this book, its motivation, and briefly describe the research methodology. We present the scope of each of the proceeding chapters, and comment on the most important bibliographical sources. I forms the ground for the Chapter 1, focused on fundamental concepts of Artificial Intelligence.
This chapter analyses intellectual property (IP) law’s digital future, focusing primarily on the emerging technology of three-dimensional (3D) printing. To date, digital technologies (such as music and image encoding and playback) have overwhelmingly impacted copyright law, with legal battles surrounding the piracy of copyrighted music, books and movies dominating the headlines and literature. After a brief introduction to IP law, this chapter will briefly summarize IP law’s digital past because it contains helpful lessons for its digital future. Unlike the past, however, in which copyright law sustained the brunt of digital challenges, IP law’s digital future will present challenges across the IP spectrum. The remainder of the chapter will consider these challenges. Because the subject is vast and space is limited, the chapter will focus the majority of its analysis on 3D printing’s effects on patent law. It will also briefly outline the challenges other IP laws will face and will conclude by providing thoughts about reacting to these challenges.
Sven H. De Cleyn and Gunter Festel
Edited by Sven H. De Cleyn and Gunter Festel
Joel West and Anne Greul
Despite an increasingly digital world, we see a movement towards physical user communities which coexist besides virtual, digital communities. This ‘old-fashioned’ face-to-face interaction within those communities attracts an increasing number of individuals who are unified in their common interest for a certain activity, technology or topic. This chapter focuses on a specific form of physical communities, so-called ‘makerspaces’. All kinds of makers, both hobbyists as well as prospective entrepreneurs, use these local facilities to get access to a broad variety of tools and equipment in order to realize their diverse projects. Seeking to understand this development, we analysed the societal and economic forces that led to a broad dissemination of these makerspaces within different countries and that caused individuals to increasingly leverage these facilities. For that purpose, we conducted an observation- and interview-based field study that included 32 semi-structured interviews with active members and staff from local makerspaces across Southern California. We found that three major themes drive the nature and success of local makerspaces: access to tools, personal locus of control that includes an empowerment of individuals to become independent, and the social interaction among members. Accordingly, local makerspaces provide not only access to tools and equipment, but serve also as a physical platform of social exchange where people with the same interests meet and support each other. Regardless of their long-term success, the impact that local makerspaces have already had on entrepreneurial endeavours and consumers’ attitude towards creating tangible objects cannot be denied.