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Managing Currency Risk

How Japanese Firms Choose Invoicing Currency

Takatoshi Ito, Satoshi Koibuchi, Kiyotaka Sato and Junko Shimizu

This book demonstrates how exporters’ decisions regarding choice of invoice currency can be influenced by many factors including firm size, product competitiveness, intra/inter-firm trades, and the geography of export destination. The aim is to enhance our understanding of exporters’ behavior in terms of managing currency risk. It contains detailed research and insightful data focusing on Japanese exporters and shows how they face an important trade-off in choosing the invoice currency. If exports are invoiced in yen, then exchange rate fluctuations will pass through to retail prices ultimately affecting sales volumes. However, if they choose to invoice in the importer’s currency, then sales volumes are largely unchanged.
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The Evolution of the World Economy

The ‘Flying-Geese’ Theory of Multinational Corporations and Structural Transformation

Terutomo Ozawa

The world economy is near a critical crossroads, as a rising China, the greatest-ever beneficiary of US-led capitalism, ironically dreams big to replace America's supremacy as a new hegemonic power with a non-liberal world order. This third volume of the trilogy on ‘flying-geese’ theory reformulation explains how capitalism has changed industrial structures across the world. Using structural development economics and political economy analytics the unfolding changes in the global industrial landscape are examined in depth. Will the ‘flying-geese’ formation survive the formation that has produced the East Asian miracle and is hoped to spread to Africa?