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Richard Anker and Martha Anker

This manual describes a new methodology to measure a decent but basic standard of living in different countries and how much workers need to earn to afford this, making it possible for researchers to estimate comparable living wages around the world and determine gaps between living wages and prevailing wages, even in countries with limited secondary data.
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Edited by Shelley Marshall and Colin Fenwick

This book is an exploration of arguments about the economic and social effects of the regulation of labour, and whether it is likely to be helpful or harmful to development. Authored by contributors from a variety of fields, primarily legal as well as development studies, economics and regulatory studies, the book presents both empirical and theoretical analyses of the issues. With authors from several continents, this collection is unique in that it focuses on labour regulation in poor and middle-income countries rather than industrialised ones, therefore making it a significant contribution to the field.
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Edited by Daniel Vaughan-Whitehead

While recent studies have highlighted the phenomenon and risks of increased inequalities between the top and the bottom of society, little research has so far been carried out on trends relating to the median income range that generally represents the middle class. This volume examines the following questions: what are the main transformations in the world of work over the last 20 years in terms of the labour market, social dialogue, and conditions of work, wages and incomes that may have affected the middle class? How has the middle class been altered by the financial and economic crisis? What are the long-term trends for the middle class in Europe?
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Ralph Fevre

A belief in individual self-determination powered the development of universal human rights and inspired social movements from anti-slavery to socialism and feminism. At the same time, every attempt to embed individualism in systems of education and employment has eventually led to increased social inequality. Across the globe individualism has been transformed from a revolutionary force into an explanation for increasingly unequal societies where dissent is largely silent. This book explores the possibility of rediscovering the original, transformative potential of individualism.
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  • Elgar Research Reviews in Economics

Michael Sattinger

Please note this updated and revised Research Review is only available online. The link to Buy Book in Print and Find This Book in Your Library is to a previous edition available in print. The previous print edition reprints the full text of many, though not all, of the Recommended Articles and complements the online edition. This review provides background to the current discussion on income inequality by explaining the historical development of the principles and questions of distributional analysis. Essential components of this background include measurement and description, explanations for the shape of the distributions of earnings and income, dynamics of income distribution, the upper tail as generated by hierarchies and organizations, determinants of individual incomes, the role of jobs and industries, non-market processes, non-labour incomes and factor shares, and policies.
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  • Elgar Research Reviews in Economics

Robert J. LaLonde

This timely research review pinpoints seminal works on active labor market policies. Topics covered in this review include econometric policy evaluation, social experiments, regression discontinuity designs, evaluations of active labor market policies. It ends with final conclusions on evaluating the evaluations.
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Colin C. Williams and Friedrich Schneider

This book brings together two leading researchers in the field to provide a comprehensive overview of the shadow economy from a global perspective. Reviewing the advantages and disadvantages of different ways of measuring the informal sector, the authors evaluate its size and key determinants across the world. Williams and Schneider clearly establish the persistence and prevalence of the shadow economy, analysing the narrowness of existing policy approaches and explaining how these fail to address the key factors for its existence and may even exacerbate the problem.
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Cai Fang

In this book Cai Fang explores the contribution of demographic transition to economic growth in China’s reform period, depicts the population factors causing the economic slowdown since the second decade of the twenty-first century, analyses the challenges facing its long-term sustainability when the demographic dividend is disappearing, and proposes important policy remedies. He suggests that in order to avoid the middle-income trap, China's economic growth has to transform from an inputs-driven pattern to a productivity-driven pattern, which requires eliminating several institutional obstacles.
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  • Elgar Research Reviews in Economics

Shoshana A. Grossbard

Shoshana Grossbard, a leading scholar in this field, highlights the economic importance of marriage and related institutions. She offers a clear and illuminating guide to the topic, considering marriage and related outcomes as well as the consequences of marriage and marriage markets for labour supply, household production, wages, consumption, household finance, education and fertility.
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Edited by Peter Nijkamp, Jacques Poot and Jessie Bakens

The populations of many countries in the world are becoming more culturally diverse. This spurs a growing need for an informed debate on the socio-economic implications of cultural diversity. This book offers a solid statistical and econometric perspective on this topical subject by bringing together studies from different countries in Europe and North America. The research in this volume sheds light on several consequences of cultural diversity, including positive impacts on innovation, growth and entrepreneurship, with contributions highlighting how there can be negative social effects on communities. Throughout the volume, it is evident that the effects of cultural diversity on socio-economic outcomes depend largely on the characteristics of local economies, populations and communities.