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Rebecca Shliselberg and Moshe Givoni

Rebecca Shliselberg and Moshe Givoni discuss the concept of motility as an emerging objective for transport policy. Motility is defined as the capacity to engage in travel, including the elements of spatial and social mobility. Semi-structured interviews are used to discuss personal narratives and a survey to understand cognitive processes in travel, experience and activity participation.

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Anna Durnová

Partisanship, the second characteristics of truth’s scenography, is a strategy to undermine both truth and science. It has been made possible by the language of neutralization, which has developed as the leading discursive register of science and expertise. Portrayed as detached from emotions, scientists have coproduced a public discourse on science as a neutral enterprise without socio-political consequences. Because of their embrace of this idolatry of neutral science, modern governments - in their efforts to promote debates on facts and data - have referenced emotions as synonymous to partisanship and thus as corrupting to scientific inquiry. However, all knowledge is partisan to the extent that it becomes necessarily embedded in the socio-political order it reacts to, and it coproduces through the knowledge it delivers. The chapter discusses the conflict around the scientists’ participation in the March for Science and focuses on narratives and discourses through which partisanship is placed in the public discourse on science.

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Janet Stanley, John Stanley and Brendan Gleeson

Janet Stanley, John Stanley and Brendan Gleeson examine transport and social equity impacts from the perspective of children and young people. They examine the theoretical contributions from authors such as Rawls and Sen, the use of needs identification in transport planning, and the importance of transport for children and young people in helping them to participate in activities and social interaction. They suggest that the needs of children and other groups in society should be better catered for, instead of solely focusing on improving the journey to work for commuters.

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William Partlett

25 years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the constitutional systems that emerged in the 15 post-Soviet republics remain under-researched and misunderstood. This chapter will begin to fill this gap by taking the first comprehensive look at constitution making in these 15 countries that span from Western Ukraine to the Russian Far East. Looking beyond formal text to the statutes and constitutional court decisions that implement this text, this Chapter will describe how many post-Soviet constitutional orders are driven or at least influenced by a normative belief in the value of centralism which stems from an exceptionalist tradition of ‘centralized state constitutionalism’. This finding yields important lessons regarding both the practice of post-Soviet constitutionalism as well as the incompleteness of formal constitutional text.

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Mohd M. Billah, Ezzedine GhlamAllah and Christos Alexakis

Here we present the practices of Takaful. The issue regarding whether a licensed insurance agent or a broker can also be licensed to market Takaful products is analyzed based on different Shari’ah alternatives. Also, the general Takaful contract and the premium in Takaful are discussed. The beneficiaries of Takaful are explained, focusing on special cases like children. Accounting and management issues are also examined in addition to valuation of assets and liabilities.

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Pragmatism and Political Crisis Management

Principle and Practical Rationality During the Financial Crisis

Christopher Ansell and Martin Bartenberger

Crisis management has become one of the core challenges facing governments, but successful crisis response depends on effective public leadership. Building on insights from Pragmatist philosophy, this deeply nuanced book provides guidance and direction for public leaders tackling the most challenging tasks of the 21st century.
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Christopher Ansell and Martin Bartenberger

The philosophy of Pragmatism offers a powerful and distinctive model of practical rationality. Classical Pragmatists sought to break down dualisms associated with inherited philosophical traditions by adopting a strong orientation towards action. They took the perspective of people acting in situ, living their lives, making sense of the world, and confronting challenges. This led them to emphasize the practical nature of rationality, with a focus on experience and problem-solving, an emphasis on process and social interaction, and a view of beliefs as subject to ongoing experimentation. A concern with uncertainty is baked into classical Pragmatism because it starts with the view that all knowledge is fallible and subject to continuous revision. Deliberation is also a central aspect of Pragmatism’s model of practical rationality because it takes the place of the optimization in rational choice theory. The Pragmatist model of practical rationality is also distinctive in seeing human action as both habitual and creative.

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Christopher Ansell and Martin Bartenberger

Building on four main building blocks of a Pragmatist theory of crisis management - anti-dualism, fallibilism, experimentalism and deliberation - this chapter develops a model of Pragmatist political crisis management, further elaborating it by contrasting it with principle-guided political crisis management. A principle is defined as a fixed belief (or set of beliefs) that is closed to new experiences or arguments and that leaves little space for doubt. Principle-guided political crisis management relies on these fixed beliefs when making decisions or making meaning in the face of uncertainty, while Pragmatist political crisis management regards belief as fallible and subject to on-going revision through experimentation and deliberation. The chapter draws out the empirical expectations that Pragmatist and principle-guided approaches have for crisis decision making and meaning making in order to guide research in subsequent chapters.

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Edited by Herwig C.H. Hofmann, Katerina Pantazatou and Giovanni Zaccaroni

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Klaus Tuori

This chapter explores the interaction between the two layers of the economic constitution, the microeconomic constitution and the macroeconomic constitution, during and after the economic crisis. The author argues that the crisis has induced changes in the principles lying at bottom the architecture of the economic constitution, entrusting - de facto - wider powers to the EU institutions and to the ECB in particular, to allow an adequate response to the emergency. This has ultimately allowed the European Central Bank, during the crisis, to take decisions that can involve serious value judgements. This consequently raises some important constitutional questions concerning the ECB’s independence, as well as the fate of the rule of law, legitimacy and democratic accountability in the EMU constitutional architecture.