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Ingo Weller and Barry Gerhart

This chapter discusses methodological challenges in doing empirical quantitative research on HRM and effectiveness in the field of comparative human resource management (HRM). In particular, attention is paid to the challenges of adopting an appropriate level of analysis and of inferring causality in studying the HRM_effectiveness link. The authors provide examples of how to handle methodological problems when working with quantitative data, including advice on fixed-effects models and conducting quasi-experiments in comparative HRM studies.

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Julia Brandl, Anna Bos-Nehles and Ina Aust

This chapter presents a state-of the art review of research on cross-national variation in organising human resource management (HRM) work based on open systems theorising of organisations. The authors suggest that practical efforts for organising HRM are based on three alternative models (classic, neo-classic, and modern), and identify the major theoretical traditions that have guided research in this field. Based on the inclusion of empirical studies, the chapter includes a new section on research in the tradition of new institutional theory as well as key issues and future research directions.

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Lonnie Golden, Stephen Sweet and Heejung Chung

This chapter explores flexible work schedule practices as they vary among individuals, organisations, and nations, and explains reasons for the observed variations. The authors argue that depending on the metric used, flexibility can be seen as widely available, or as seriously constrained or limited. They also consider the connection between flexible working and work_family harmonisation. Concluding, the chapter notes that, particularly among European nations, the industrial relations context, such as collective bargaining institutions, and the prevalence of service and public sectors, influence the diffusion of working time flexibility practices across organisations and countries.

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Paul Sparrow

This chapter explores comparative and international human resource management (HRM) traditions associated with psychological contract research. Emphasis is placed on comparing a micro-individual level approach to understanding psychological contracts with a macro-national level approach, making a strong case for cultural embeddedness.

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Elaine Farndale, Irene Nikandrou and Leda Panayotopoulou

This chapter highlights commonalities within nations, but differences between nations, to present a cross-national comparison of recruitment and selection practices. The authors examine how these practices relate to, interact with, and are influenced by the national institutional and cultural context. The chapter reflects on recruitment and selection practice variation between nations.

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Anabella Davila and Marta M. Elvira

This chapter identifies the key (silent) stakeholders involved in employment relationships, determining how human resource management (HRM) systems have been configured. The authors develop arguments supporting the three pillars on which this stakeholder HRM model is built. They also present a systematic analysis of ten Latin American multinational corporations’ annual and sustainability reports to identify how organisations promote employee involvement with the local community, and the HRM practices that link employees with their proximal community to foster social inclusion.

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Peter Boxall, Hugh Bainbridge and Stephen Frenkel

This chapter compares and contrasts human resource management (HRM) models in Australia and New Zealand, discussing how despite both being liberal market economies, the differences between the countries in size (geographically and economically) result in variance in HRM practice. In particular, the review emphasises the importance of small business and informal characteristics of HRM in New Zealand, compared to the typically larger Australian organisations.

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Ina Aust, Michael Muller-Camen and Erik Poutsma

This chapter brings a comparative and institutional perspective to the emergent concept of Sustainable HRM, which links corporate social responsibility (CSR) and human resource management (HRM). Sustainable HRM is defined as the adoption of HRM strategies and practices that enable the achievement of financial, social, and ecological goals, with an impact inside and outside of the organisation and over a long-term time horizon while controlling for unintended side effects and negative feedback. The authors suggest that there may not be a universal version of sustainable HRM, but that different national institutional environments lead to the emergence of different models. Some of these are more conducive to develop sustainability in HRM, whereas others mean that it is more challenging for the HRM function to achieve environmental, social, and human sustainability.

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Edited by Paul Sparrow and Cary L. Cooper

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Anthony Hesketh

The chapter examines the issue of value, and the role of big data in helping to establish HR analytics around this. It explores why and how most researchers continue to think the answer lies in organisations (and key functions within them such as the HR function). It discusses the narratives emerging around data-driven decision-making, and the application of predictive modeling. It adopts a critical perspective on the use of traditional statistical techniques, and calls for more published management scholarship that tackles the challenges of using such tools. It argues that we need to complicate the field, and HR function, to move forward, and use alternative, meta-theoretical approaches, and associated techniques. It argues there is a wider malaise in both research and practice as to what constitutes knowledge in general, and what counts as analytical evidence of causality in driving business outcomes. It examines and critiques research that is used to argue for the relationship between human resources management and performance and calls “analytical argumentation” via a new form of analysis.