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U-Seok Seo

This chapter discusses the diverse relationships between creativity and coffee tourism in Gangneung, South Korea. Considering coffee tourism as one kind of food and drink tourism, this chapter reviews how previous research has related food and drink tourism with creativity and then outlines how the rise of coffee tourism has been possible in a small city such as Gangneung and how the city’s use of creativity contributed to this achievement. Gangneung’s coffee tourism provides creative tourism opportunities to acquire knowledge about different methods of making coffee and to participate in a variety of coffee-related DIY experiences. In addition, creative spaces are made in cafés, which function as cultural spaces. Coffee tourism now plays a pivotal role in fostering favourable circumstances for culture-based urban regeneration through attracting taste-oriented visitors and enhancing place image. Suggestions for further research on creative tourism in general as well as with respect to food and drink tourism are given. The author suggests a more differentiated understanding of creative tourism is needed to understand a variety of creative tourism developments (such as the ‘snack culture’ type), the creative convergence evident in Gangneung’s experiences is occurring in a great variety of ways and needs to be studied more thoroughly, and the role of media and celebrities in promoting creative tourism could be a significant topic for future research.

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Yannick Radi

Coherence is a fundamental concept which raises fierce debates among international law scholars and practitioners. Some regard coherence as a ‘pathological desire’; others view it as being inherent to (international) law. This chapter focuses on that political struggle and the views expressed in both international legal theory and practice. It first proposes a brief overview of the fundamental issues debated among legal theorists in relation to coherence and the content determination of the law. It then introduces and critically analyses the main arguments put forth by international legal theorists – mainly opponents – as to the relevance of coherence in discussion of the content determination of international law. Finally, it discusses coherence from the standpoint of international legal practice; more precisely, it focuses on international investment law, which, because of the features of its treaty and arbitration practices, provides an insightful case study to better grasp the concept.

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Alex Millmow

Colin Clark and Keynes started an intellectual association during the Depression years when the younger man was, following a recommendation from G.D.H. Cole, recruited to work for the Economic Advisory Council. Following that appointment, Keynes ensured that Clark took up a lectureship in statistics. While not a member of the Cambridge Circus, Clark gave Keynes the means to understand how economic aggregates were compiled and, more importantly, how they could be affected by policy action. Clark also provided the number work for Kahn’s income expenditure multiplier. The chance to take a one-year lecturing assignment overseas, spent mostly in Australia, ended up with Clark forsaking Cambridge and taking a job with the Queensland Government because, as he told Keynes, it was the chance to put economics into action. Even distant, Clark’s most cited article on the fiscal limitation of taxation was partly inspired by a comment made by Keynes on public finance. The bond between the two men remained close, with Clark later writing several memorials celebrating the life of his benefactor.

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Rosie Burbidge

This chapter is a short introduction to the many issues associated with counterfeit goods including the use of customs recordals to catch counterfeit goods entering the European Economic Area and the different available procedures. It also looks at the sale of goods in physical and online marketplaces and references the different techniques for dealing with these issues. It finishes with a look at 3D printing and the associated counterfeiting risks posed by this new technology.

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Ali Mirchi, Josiah Heyman, George Tchobanoglous, Daisuke Minakata, Shane Walker, Maryam Samimi, R. Brian Guerrero, Diego Sanchez and Robert M. Handler

This chapter discusses wastewater reuse as a strategy to cope with water shortages, highlighting the importance of community decision making for successful implementation of the strategy. A brief overview of techno-economic and social dimensions of potable reuse of treated wastewater is presented along with examples of indirect and direct wastewater reuse applications for drinking purposes around the world. Two important case studies in San Diego, California, and El Paso, Texas are examined to offer insights into barriers to wide acceptability of the technology. The chapter underscores the importance of effective outreach and public relations campaigns, and public engagement in informed, transparent and democratic decision making to adopt potable reuse of treated wastewater as a component of water supply portfolio in water scarce regions.

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John Murray

The purpose of this chapter is to describe how an initiative at Indiana State University called the Community Semester has made strides toward building a bridge between the residents of the community of Terre Haute and the university’s largest college. The Community Semester is a 15-week series of lectures, panel discussions, and arts events that the faculty share with the city’s residents. The chapter discusses the origins of the Community Semester, its connection with the strategic plan and vision of the institution, how the event is delivered, and the event’s strengths and shortcomings. The chapter concludes with a discussion of general issues associated with town–gown relations and looks at how events like the Community Semester can be used to leverage a better and more productive relationship between college, university, and city.

Open access

Laura Alexandra Helbling, Stefan Sacchi and Christian Imdorf

This chapter investigates the extent to which graduating in a bad economy scars the careers of youth cohorts in terms of increased future unemployment and over-representation in fixed-term and involuntary part-time work. Using data from the European Union’s Labour Force Survey, we explore these dynamics of scarring from a cross-country comparative perspective, focusing on the United Kingdom, Germany, Switzerland, Spain and Finland. These countries make for interesting cases because they differ remarkably on institutional and economic dimensions. Overall, we find that bad luck in the timing of labour market entry can scar future careers, even over the long run. Manifold factors might explain the observed variation in scarring effects across different institutional settings. A sound conceptualization of the institutional framing of long-term scarring effects requires a well-established micro theory of these effects’ behavioural foundations, regarding both employers and jobseekers or workers.

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Christoph Lütge

This chapter focuses on how increased competition in ecology does not in fact harm the environment, but can bring about ethical improvements. Zero growth or degrowth are not necessarily ethically and ecologically positive. Examples from China and other contexts are given.

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Christoph Lütge

This chapter deals with the effects of competition in the education sector. Not every form of competition is ethically valuable. It depends on the actors we allow to compete and in what way. Particular reference is made to changes in the German system of education.

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Christoph Lütge

This chapter is dedicated to the question whether increased competition in the fields of healthcare and nursing can lead to ethical improvements. I argue that it is complicated but feasible to set adequate rules for competition to work in an ethical way. Reference is made to the comparison of health sector reforms in different countries. Several seemingly ethical arguments why competition should not enter the health sector are rebutted.