The chapter examines globalisation in the context of two international HRM literatures: comparative HRM (CHRM); and HRM in multinational enterprises (MNEs). It reviews debates behind the “globalisation thesis” and long-term developments towards convergence or divergence at the macro level of nation states, and the meso level of organisational practices. It uses the notions of context, time and process to examine these literatures. It calls for the use of time to ensure better theory building and for more longitudinal and qualitative work to reveal micro-political processes at play. It argues more attention should be given to the role of process – the means and mechanisms through which management operates – in the international HRM field. It discusses the role of key actors at higher levels, and the role of psychological processes at the individual level through which employees attach meaning to HRM.
This chapter highlights how competing ways of thinking about sustainability are reflected in organizational and IHRD practices. The chapter draws on IHRD and IHRM literature which has a critical focus on sustainability and learning. It examines the construct of green HRD, and draws out its key features. The chapter presents a conceptual framework, which identifies three orientations to green IHRD. These three orientations are examined, exploring how they could be reflected in different aspects of the practice of green IHRD, and provide pointers to developing green IHRD processes. The implications for IHRD research and practice are explored, and the chapter argues for a more critical approach to IHRD and sustainability, with an emphasis on innovative approaches to organizational learning.
Context, Processes and People
Edited by Thomas Garavan, Alma McCarthy and Ronan Carbery
Dave Lepak, Kaifeng Jiang and Robert E. Ployhart
This chapter examines the nature of strategic HRM as a system and draws attention to different models that have been used to analyse this system, such as the abilities, motivations and opportunities (AMO) model, or models of the employee–organisation relationship. It lays out the rapid evolution of the field and its future trajectory. Attention is drawn to four shifts: giving more attention to the different patterns of strategic execution often seen across work groups within a single organisation; more attention to those factors that promote group work; understanding how team cognition, team diversity, team demographics, and team efficacy impact effectiveness; and understanding the linkages between these issues to explain how group-level factors help transfer the impact of organisation-level HR systems to outcomes across levels. The chapter draws attention to the importance of time in HR strategy with more longitudinal datasets, better controls for prior factors that might predispose an organisation to perform in one way versus another, and not assuming linear effects. It blends ideas from human capital theory with those from the field of strategy and a resource-based view of the firm, and how this has led to the current attention that is being given the different forms of human capital and the enabling processes that transform individual knowledge, skill, ability, and other characteristics (the KSAO model) into unique, unit-, operations- and firm-level resources.
Paul Sparrow and Lilian Otaye-Ebede
The chapter addresses the challenges for the field of HRM created by the drive for productivity, arguing productivity may be thought of as one form of organisational resilience. It argues the HR function thinks about productivity in relatively narrow terms – looking to individual-level productivity activities such as building workforce skills, managing employee engagement to keep skilled employees delivering, and designing performance management systems and incentives systems such as performance-related pay to maintain control over the implementation of work. It outlines two challenges: developments in national, and organisational level productivity. It explains the main factors involved in organisation level productivity, and identifies three contextual factors that HRM research will have to take into account: the role of time in the HRM–productivity challenge; the relationship between productivity, HRM, and risk; and the importance of understanding the most appropriate level of analysis question in examining the relationship between HRM and productivity. It discusses the use of human capital metrics and HR analytics in this context.
Alan M. Saks and Jamie A. Gruman
The chapter reviews the relationship between engagement and HRM, and the need to link HR practices to the attitudes, behaviours, and performance of individual employees, and back to firm performance. It uses the ability–motivation–opportunity (AMO model) to review research on skill enhancing, motivation-enhancing, and opportunity-enhancing HRM practices. It examines how positive perceptions of HRM practices are positively related to engagement, and engagement mediates the relationship between HRM practices and specific work outcomes such as innovation. It brings literature on person–organisation fit perceptions, socialisation, voice, job design and job enrichment into the study of employee engagement. It argues that future empirical work should incorporate important processes such as meaningfulness, safety, resources, support, trust, fairness and perceptions of fit to understand their role as predictors of employee, team and/ or collective engagement.
Gary N. McLean and Sewon Kim
The increase in global teamwork is a significant theme in contemporary business environments. Organizations are expanding their operations globally (Europe, Asia, North America, Latin America, the Middle East, or Africa) for easier access to world markets and resources, while developing international visibility, product localization, maximizing firm value to shareholders, improving support for global customers, and other potential advantages. This chapter examines the research and practices in global team management and development. The chapter offers a conceptual framework of, and practical guidelines for, global teams, integrating relevant literature on team development, cross-cultural management, organization development, and international human resources. The chapter discusses practice implications for IHRD professionals and sets out current and future research directions.
Michelle Hammond, Deirdre O’Shea and Jill Pearson
This chapter explores the diverse perspectives on global careers and their implications for international human resource development. The chapter starts by discussing what is meant by global careers and how careers have changed within the global economy and the implications of globalisation and traditional versus contemporary career concepts such as boundaryless and protean careers are examined. The chapter examines how organisations and careerists might manage the challenges and opportunities around global work experiences. Finally, the chapter discusses the opportunities for further research on global careers within the field of IHRD, especially in the areas of systematic categorisation that captures the diversity of global work experiences and examinations of the role of context and time in global careers.
Andrew Bratton, Thomas Garavan, Norma D’Annunzio-Green and Kirsteen Grant
The chapter examines the important role of global talent development in MNCs and other international organizations. This chapter commences by defining talent development and international talent development and highlights issues concerning different approaches to talent development. . Second, options for organizing and managing talent development in an IHRD context are set out. Third, the main types of programs that organizations utilize to develop talent in an IHRD context are discussed and differences in talent development in international organizations across different regions are reviewed. Finally, the chapter concludes by proposing future areas of research on talent development in international organizations, as well as recommendations for IHRD practice.
This chapter explores international leader development as a significant area of inquiry and practice within the emerging field of international human resource development. The focus is specifically on leader as opposed to leadership development within an international context, reflecting the major body of work in this area to date, which has looked at the concept of global leaders and their development. The chapter takes a critical approach to the literature on global leader development and highlights the relatively poor data that exists regarding the impact of global leader development. It raises major questions that need to be addressed to further our understanding in this area if both theory and practice are to be enhanced. Chief among these include the need to better align both current theory and practice and the problems associated with global competence-based frameworks that reflect fairly ethnocentric notions of how leaders should be developed. The chapter argues that the literature should explore ideas that cross-cultural differences in leadership have implications for how leader development might be construed and even practised in differing cultural contexts. Drawing upon the popular model of leader development as comprising the three key components of assessment, challenge and support, the chapter identifies cultural limitations associated with three traditional methods used in leader development (1) three hundred and sixty degree feedback, (2) developmental job challenge and (3) self-directed learning. The chapter concludes with recommendations on directions for future research in the area of international leader development.