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Christoph Lütge

This chapter looks at the way in which we deal with ideas of competition in the private sphere. My concern here is with the mechanisms anchored in our everyday thinking that leads us to repeatedly reject competition and other economic processes. The chapter ends with a call for more entrepreneurship on all levels of society.

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Yun-han Chu, Min-hua Huang and Jie Lu

Asian peoples’ perceptions on the nature of China’s rise and its impact on the region are determined by a multitude of factors, including contextual factors and domestic cleavages. This chapter focuses on two contextual factors with important policy implications. Chinese policy makers have increasingly recognized that soft power and national image management are essential aspects of Chinese foreign policy agenda. China’s international prominence is bound to rise with its ambitious Belt & Road Initiative, which is likely to reconfigure the paths and rules of economic integration and globalization. If China proves capable of providing ever more regional and global public products, in terms of policy coordination mechanisms, global economic infrastructure, and multilateral institutions, it will gain more credibility and respect in the eyes of Asian people as a responsible great power in the twenty-first century. The conventional wisdom in foreign policy circles tends to treat pro-US and pro-China attitudes as mutually exclusive. But this might not be the case in the Asia Pacific region, because for most East Asians the role of China and the United States are not mutually replaceable. In fact a balance of two great powers in the Asia Pacific region might serve their interests best.

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Christoph Lütge

This chapter discusses the application of the book’s core ideas on competition to the political sphere. Election thresholds and online elections are discussed, as well as ethical standards for competition in the political arena.

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Christoph Lütge

Competition is a more complicated concept than it appears to be. This chapter distinguishes competition from related concepts (such as struggle or contest). It explores different types of competition, such as chivalrous and socialist competition, and gives room to critics of capitalism.

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Ingrid Wuerth

This chapter explores the term ‘compliance’ from the perspective of different theoretical approaches to international law. The importance and role of compliance in the international legal system is contested; some of the debate tracks political and national differences. The chapter maintains that although some theorists have focused too much on compliance, compliance is nevertheless central to international law.

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Concepts for International Law

Contributions to Disciplinary Thought

Edited by Jean d’Aspremont and Sahib Singh

Concepts shape how we understand and participate in international legal affairs. They are an important site for order, struggle and change. This comprehensive and authoritative volume introduces a large number of concepts that have shaped, at various points in history, international legal practice and thought; intimates at how the many projects of international law have grappled with, and influenced, the world through certain concepts; and introduces new concepts into the discipline.
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Edited by Charles A. Ingene, James R. Brown and Rajiv P. Dant

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Edited by Charles A. Ingene, James R. Brown and Rajiv P. Dant

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Charles A. Ingene and James R. Brown

We present a preliminary, conceptual theory as a basis for integrating extant research over a vast scope of all channel forms: (i.e., everyway), in all marketplaces (i.e., everywhere), and all stages of economic development (i.e., everywhen). Central to our theory are four managerially-exogenous determinants of successful distribution practices (i.e., the 4Ds): (1) Market Demographics; (2) Dollars: the level and distribution of market income and wealth; (3) Geographic Density of the market area; and (4) Environmental Disruptors: governmental actions and technological changes that alter modes of production, communication and transportation. Through an historical analysis of four retail epochs in the United States – urbanization’s nascence (1790 – 1850), transcontinental migration (1850 – 1900), urbanization’s maturation (1900 – 1950), and suburbanization’s spread (1950 – 2000), we illustrate how these 4Ds have shaped an ever-changing retail structure that has generated, and continues to generate, a derived demand for channel structures everyway, everywhere, everywhen. We apply our theory to today’s Retail Apocalypse by highlighting how managerial misunderstandings of the 4Ds have contributed to extensive retail failures. In contrast, intertype competitors such as today’s e-tailers, successfully exploit the tenuous understanding that many individual retailers (and the formats they embody) have as to how the 4Ds shape successful channel strategies.

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Aharon Kellerman

We will begin this chapter with the summaries of the previous chapters, pre¬sented in sequence. We will then move to an interpretation of the Internet as a general-purpose technology, and finally, we will conclude the book with an evaluation of the general theme of the book as presenting Internet applications, followed by Internet implications, within an urban framework.