Political protest by ‘refugees’ has proliferated worldwide, yet has only received marginal attention in social movement studies. According to dominant movement theories, migrants are unlikely subjects of mobilization due to legal obstacles (including ‘deportability’), limited economic and social capital and closed political and discursive opportunities. Building upon recent innovations in contentious politics, which stress the ‘relational qualities of space’, the authors comparatively sketch out and theorize processes of self-organized refugee activism in Austria and Germany. It is argued that experiences of isolation and exclusion from society have fundamentally shaped the life-worlds of ‘refugees’ and the contentious strategies they have chosen to overcome spaces of control and disintegration: mobile tactics such as marches and bus tours as well as autonomous camps and occupied buildings are central components of refugees’ repertoire of contention across the two national contexts the authors explored. In both cases, appropriating and accessing spaces with favourable relational qualities was crucial for transforming localized dissent into larger mobilizations.
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Elias Steinhilper and Ilker Ataç
To understand the scope and nature of the enforcement of shareholders’ duties, it is necessary to compare this type of enforcement with that of contracts and agreements shareholders may have concluded with companies or third parties. In some cases, contractual arrangements may reinforce shareholders’ duties by providing more effective remedies. In other circumstances, contracts may clarify what other shareholders or companies expect from a shareholder or introduce obligations in addition to those mandated by law. However, some¬times, contractual obligations may also conflict with shareholders’ duties and jeopardize the performance of such duties.
Governmentality and neoliberal governmentality offer productive frameworks in analyses of efforts to control migration and (im)mobility. Recently, scholars have identified the need for more attention to complex and messy articulations of neoliberal governmentality. This chapter takes up this call with a focus on the US asylum seeking adjudication process. The author outlines asylum application and adjudication procedures and then details a system that is replete with bureaucracy and contradiction. Asylum seekers are disciplined yet called upon to be ever more entrepreneurial. Resources are redirected toward securitization, resulting in scarcity, higher caseloads, and longer wait times for asylum case decisions. Heightened demand for unassailable evidence increases the value of expertise yet ‘truth’ in the context of asylum is increasingly delegitimized. This presents several challenges for legal representation and migrant support groups who must calculate the value of and trade-offs in providing expertise and support. The chapter closes with a further call and provocation to engage with the contradictions of the neoliberal governmentality of asylum as a messy yet necessary imperative for critical geographies of migration.
Visual appearance is of the utmost importance to the fashion industry. This chapter looks at the use of copyright to protect clothing and accessories including the features of a product such as a fabric pattern. It also looks at the more quirky types of copyright protection such as fashion shows. This chapter focuses on how you obtain copyright protection and answers the important questions such as how long does it last and who owns it? It concludes by looking at the different registration methods which are available in Europe and internationally including the benefits of copyright registration in countries such as China and the US.
Brenda S.A. Yeoh, Kellynn Wee and Charmian Goh
In the context of the Asia-Pacific, the corporeal geographies of migration are inflected by temporariness. The flexibilization of life and labor has led to low-waged migrants taking on the brunt of socially devalued work, particularly jobs which require demanding physical labor or the intimate care of others’ bodies. By centering corporeal geographies as an analytical lens, this chapter shows how understanding bodies as analytic and scale destabilizes binary ways of thinking, uncovers power operating at various scales, and foregrounds migrants’ experiences and desires. The authors review poststructuralist, feminist, and critical race approaches to corporeality, as well as conceptual work on emotional geographies and the ‘mobilities turn.’ They then turn to three broad themes to draw out the major contributions that corporeal geographies have made to our understandings of migration: migrant bodies and the politics of border control; migrant encounters, enclavement, and enclosure; and corporeal absence, mediated intimacy, and transnational family life.
China’s economy has been thriving and will see a vigorous growth in the upcoming years. This chapter reviews China’s monetary history and explores the key driving forces that have strengthened China’s currency, and its adjustment of currency policy. The central outlook in the short and medium term is for a Chinese currency that plays a powerful role in Asia, and an increasingly important role elsewhere, but does not usurp the dollar’s global currency role.
Martina Tazzioli and Glenda Garelli
This chapter mobilizes a counter-mapping approach with respect to the normative geographies of the asylum system building on some examples of how refugees have been governed in the Mediterranean region in the past few years. It explores firstly what ‘counter’ means in the context of a critical cartography of migration, and unpacks the main theoretical and political tenets such a methodological perspective mobilizes against. The author’s take on counter-mapping relies on what they call a reflexive cartography, that is, an analysis that does not consist only in a cartographic practice, but that, rather, interrogates the predicaments and the implications of mapping migration. The authors also refer to cartographic experimentations that trouble the spatial and temporal fixes of a state-based gaze on migration. In sum, counter-mapping as a method and counter-mapping as a cartographic experimentation intertwine as part of the authors’ critical account of the visualizations of migration and refugee issues.
In our twenty-first century urbanizing world there is a tendency to reserve words like ‘creative’ and ‘innovative’ for the most geographically central places with high population growth and high-technology sectors. However, through tourism studies, we have a window on another kind of creativity in another kind of place. This chapter builds on the research on creative tourism in small cities and rural places led by CREATOUR, Greg Richards, and others and takes it to the next geographical level of rural peripheral places – creative outposts. A ‘creative outpost’ is a rural peripheral community which faces a challenging socio-economic environment but which meets its challenges by deploying endogenous creative capital resulting in a palpable shift towards a more sustainable socio-economic environment. This chapter focuses on the subtle, yet palpable, role of the creative processes that contribute to rural peripheral tourism innovation. By sharing three research vignettes from rural British Columbia, Canada – Ashcroft, Fernie, and Salt Spring Island – it is shown that tourism has proven to be tenacious in rural peripheral areas and that creative tourism has a clear role in the long-term resilience of rural communities.
This chapter provides an overview of the development of a major creative tourism initiative in Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States. It discusses research undertaken to identify the economic value of ‘creative tourism’ activity in Santa Fe; to assess the scope, nature, and extent of creative tourism activities in Santa Fe; to evaluate the characteristics of a thriving arts and culture sector to support creative tourism activities; and to identify and assess the economic value of creative tourism activities in Santa Fe.
Magnus Luiz Emmendoerfer
The aim of this chapter is to present the integrated notion of Creative Tourist Regions (CTRs) to support the elaboration and execution of public policies at the municipal level. Discussing the differences between the concepts of creative tourism and community-based tourism, the CTR notion is then elaborated in association with the creative economy and public policy. Elements are proposed that can help in the planning and monitoring of public policies in local development in regards to both tourism activities and creative ventures. The author argues that CTR as a basis for public policy can be an alternative to make the concept of creative cities more feasible through respecting and congregating the diversity of existing cultural and market expressions that it may represent with an intent to induce tourism.