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Edited by Joseph Sarkis
This chapter provides an introduction into the need and overview of study in sustainable supply chains. The introduction includes some issues with the term ‘sustainability’ and the focus on natural environmental issues or environmental sustainability in this Handbook. A brief history of sustainable supply chains, and a multi-level analysis sets the stage for introduction to the Handbook.The Handbook structure and content are broadly defined in this chapter.
The idea that wars are subject to rules and limitations has existed for millennia, as it is inherent in the very concept of war. Throughout history, all civilizations and religions have established some rules that today would be qualified as IHL. Even before modern IHL was codified in multilateral treaties, belligerents frequently concluded bilateral agreements or issued unilateral instructions in this field. Following the initiative of Henry Dunant and later the ICRC in the nineteenth century, the first multilateral treaties were adopted in this field. Subsequently, such treaties were periodically extended and adapted to new problems arising in armed conflicts. Today, this branch of public international law is largely codified in the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 as well as in the related Additional Protocols of 1977. While all States are parties to the Conventions, a number of important States have yet to accept the Protocols.
Zsuzsa A. Ferenczy
Since the first EU China Communication in 1995, commitment to safeguard human rights has been an objective at the heart of the EU’s China policy, together with democracy and rule of law. A principled European narrative has gradually taken shape, the result of common efforts of all the actors involved in a fragmented governance structure. Yet, the gap between generous rhetoric and Europe’s failure to implement a common approach in practice has damaged Europe’s power of example, a key factor in shaping its effectiveness. Most importantly, the fundamental normative divergence overshadowing EU-China relations has hindered dialogue at the expense of trust and mutual understanding. Human rights remain a constant irritation. Europe’s crises have brought further pressure on its efforts to socialize its partner in this sensitive and difficult policy area. As a result, European normative power effectiveness in human rights in China has remained limited.
Yasin Duman and Ayşe Betül Çelik
UNHCR statistics indicate that 3.6 million Syrian refugees have been registered in Turkey. This chapter adopts a human-security approach to examine the problems the refugees face in terms of rights, security, intergroup relations, and access to basic services. In doing so, it also discusses the various roles governmental and non-governmental organizations have played as third parties. This study adopts Ager and Strang’s integration framework, which focuses on the foundation of rights and citizenship, requiring attitudinal changes of both the refugees and locals. The data is drawn from interviews with Syrian refugees and leaders or employees of the I/NGOs working with the refugee community in Gaziantep, _zmir, Hatay, _stanbul, and _anlıurfa. Evidence from the field research shows the “refugee crisis” is complex and multi-faceted. Both the Turkish government agencies and I/NGOs provide social, financial, and legal support to the refugees, yet these efforts are not found to be sufficiently responsive.
IHL is not the only branch of international law that provides answers to humanitarian problems arising in armed conflicts. Other branches of international law equally apply during armed conflicts. Today, it is no longer possible to divide international law into the law of war and the law of peace. Indeed, many rules that were initially adopted to tackle peacetime issues also apply during armed conflicts. Any lawyer who gives advice, makes arguments or adjudicates cases concerning humanitarian problems must know all of the relevant rules of international law that apply (and not simply the IHL rule) and must also understand their interplay as well as any related controversies in order to determine the answer international law provides to a given problem.
Alan C. O'Connor, Albert N. Link, Brandon M. Down and Laura M. Hillier
The Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI) and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) allied to analyze the impact of their investments in medical imaging research. The CFI funds capital and operating programs for research infrastructure, and CIHR’s mandate concentrates its funding on research activity. It happens that CIHR funded research consumes CFI-funded infrastructure as an input in the innovation process. Apart from a few partnered programs, by design there is no coordination between CFI and CIHR funding decisions. Together, these agencies invested $916 million over a 14 year-period. In this paper, we evaluate the economic and health benefits from advancements in one funded area, namely computed tomography perfusion (CTP). CTP is an imaging technique that uses computed tomography to measure blood flow in organs and tissues. It is mostly used to assess acute ischemic stroke. The net social benefits attributable to these investments are substantially positive: the benefit-to-cost ratio is estimated to be between 6.66-to-1 and 9.99-to-1. We review how public investments from multiple funders comingle in the innovation process to deliver social value and improved health outcomes.
Life demands all of its forms the ability simultaneously to be and to become. (Rose, 1997: 142)