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Jochen von Bernstorff

The contribution sketches the functions and potential of critical interventions by both international legal practitioners and scholars. It builds on the assumption that critique requires a reflexive distance vis-à-vis the operations of the international legal system. Two broader and particularly prominent critical approaches in international legal scholarship are identified: critique as exposing hegemonic structures in international law, and critique as exposing indeterminacy in international legal discourse.

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Gry Hongsmark Knudsen

This chapter discusses how feminist marketing research forwards a problematic understanding of female consumers as passive and lacking in critical sensibilities. The theoretical section details how this understanding is maintained in research through systematic silencing of female consumers' critical voices. The theoretical section traces this silencing to paradigmatic differences in feminist research. In contrast, this chapter outlines an example of critical female readership, through a reception study of the Fifty Shades trilogy. Building on interviews with female readers and online fan-fiction and discussion forums on social media, the chapter argues that women indeed are critical and reflexive readers. Further, that by paying attention to and acknowledging the paradigmatic differences within feminist scholarship, we come to understand why and how feminist research can forward opposing views of women, men, and their abilities for critical thinking and action.

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Erin C. Pischke, Amarella Eastmond and Gabriela Alonso-Yanez

Global change research necessitates awareness of the international context and existence of problems beyond isolated areas (e.g. single countries). Transdisciplinary multinational research tackles questions that are difficult (perhaps impossible) to pursue through independent, single-discipline research projects. It increases engagement and inclusive research practices and offers opportunities for designing innovative methods to collect and analyze data/evidence. In spite of the many challenges to conducting transdisciplinary research across multiple countries, the importance of the international collaboration component resides in the ability of such teams to pool diverse skills, knowledge and experiences which can increase the efficiency and accuracy of gathering, analyzing and communicating environmental data and knowledge from different countries. However, the scientific literature does not place emphasis on the rewards and difficulties that come with conducting such research. In this chapter, we outline why this type of research is important but also why it can be fraught with challenges.

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Arthur Feinsod

Using the model of Crossroads Repertory Theatre in Terre Haute, Indiana and its affiliation with Indiana State University, this chapter presents the role of a university-based professional theater in serving multiple communities. In the author’s 13 years as artistic director, he pursued policies that took into account the needs of the surrounding communities, always working to ensure that addressing the needs of one did not alienate or neglect another. This led to a constant balancing that required continuous vigilance and self-evaluation from year to year. This chapter draws on the author’s experience with Crossroads Repertory Theatre and its discovered value as a case study in balance in providing a rich cultural and intellectual environment for multiple communities simultaneously, without sacrificing financial stability and efficiency.

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Geoff Marée

This chapter concerns the practical aspects of creating experiences that matter. It describes the basics of the creative process focusing on skills and requirements. Essential qualities are presented, such as awareness, a curious attitude, and perseverance. The difference between divergence and convergence is also considered, and the Innovation Engine is explained. It is important to understand the experience phenomenon in order to be able to develop meaningful experiences. The different realms of experience are touched upon as an introduction to the Interactive Experience Model. This model illustrates the three key contexts that influence an interactive experience the namely sociocultural, personal and physical contexts. The chapter continues with a description of the Customer Journey Canvas and how it functions both as a monitoring and as a creative tool for experience design. The various options for the optimal final selection are tested and selected using scenario writing and prototyping. The importance of fast failure and iteration are emphasized. Finally, the chapter returns to the co-creation intentions of the Imagineering process.

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Mauro Boianovsky

Champernowne was Keynes’s supervision student when the latter lectured in Cambridge about his forthcoming General Theory in 1933–34. As a result, Champernowne put forward in 1936 a path-breaking attempt to sort out the unemployment controversy between Keynes and Pigou. He challenged alternative views of wage determination by introducing, for the first time in the literature, the analytical role of workers’ price expectations in labour market dynamics. This anticipated aspects of Friedman’s and Phelps’s later “natural rate of unemployment hypothesis”. When his 1936 article was reprinted in 1964, Champernowne revisited the role of expectations as “links between the economic future and the present” in assets markets. His 1964 essay provided a pioneer comprehensive treatment of the theme of expectations and uncertainty in the General Theory, before it started to gain assent in some circles as the “central message” of the book.

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Edited by Charles A. Ingene, James R. Brown and Rajiv P. Dant

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Hilary Charlesworth

Over the past few decades, democracy has become an international concept. This chapter surveys international legal encounters with the concept of democracy: its use in international institutions, in the recognition of states, in decisions to intervene in a state, and in the human rights field. It is critical of the limited notion of democracy that emerges in international practice and argues for a substantive account of democracy based on the goal of accountability for and prevention of the arbitrary use of power.

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Charles Goodhart and Mauro Boianovsky

Much of what is now taken as mainstream macroeconomics derives more from Robertson, than from Keynes. For example, that there is an equilibrium (nowadays described as NAIRU) in the labour market, and that any attempt to push demand above that level will end in spiralling inflation; that the (quasi-)equilibrium real interest rate is determined by real forces of thrift and productivity; and that monetary policy is potent and should be primarily aimed at maintaining price stability. The collaboration between Keynes and Robertson in the 1920s resulted in several major works, although none published under joint authorship. The 1930s witnessed less of a combined effort. Each went their separate ways, Robertson developing his theory of fluctuations around full employment (“normal” unemployment), while Keynes worked on short-run unemployment equilibrium. After 1936 they became involved in debates over aspects of Keynes’s theories, especially the determination of the rate of interest.