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Meg Parsons and Johanna Nalau

This chapter focuses on adaptation policy specifically as it pertains to Pacific small island developing states (SIDS) that are often identified as being particularly vulnerable to climate change. The chapter explores the role of social and political institutions in adaptation policy development and implementation and the kinds of conceptualizations, which are used about the SIDS in global climate adaptation discourse. Of particular interest is how the unique social and political structures of small islands combined with the perceive urgency of climate risks influences the adaptation policy and planning discussions. It sets out the underpinnings of postcolonialism and explains how such theorizing can increase the depth of understandings in regards to climate adaptation policy development and practice with a focus on the Pacific SIDS. The authors share several examples of how adaptation policy processes currently fail to include the socio-cultural contexts of Pacific nations, and suggest key research and policy directions which could build on a more inclusive and holistic view of Pacific SIDS.

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Robbert Biesbroek and Rob Swart

The European Union (EU) is a supranational entity for which climate change adaptation has become an important policy topic. This chapter seeks to address the question of how the EU currently governs climate change adaptation. The authors show how the open method of coordination as governing logic offers the possibility for the European Commission to mainstream climate change adaptation considerations through the acquiscommunautaire. Moreover, this approach also offers the Commission the possibility to stimulate the exchange of best practices, setting up new policy, practice and knowledge networks, involving non-governmental organizations and the private sector in adaptation, and to facilitate coordination and cooperation between member states and regions. Beyond these mostly procedural policy tools, however, the EU has very limited power to force member states to start adapting. The authors reflect on what these insights from the EU mean for governing climate change adaptation at the supranational level in general.

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Wolfgang Drechsler

The chapter begins by critiquing current US (and Dutch) public administration scholarship and journal publishing for being narrow and asserting a ‘One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church’ positivistic approach to the study of the discipline. It argues that ‘the focus of PA today is gaming the real idea of PA as a scholarly discipline or area, is focusing at best on producing shadows on the wall of the cave, so that content – one could argue – summarily falls to the side’. This is similar to political science and economics, but in those subjects, it doesnot matter as they have only a tenuous relationship to reality. In public administration, however, it does matter as the purpose of research in public administration is to connect theory and practice; to be useful. The problem is that the application of method has become the point, not the tool, privileging form over content. He calls for a recognition of methodological and cognitive diversity, especially in regard to Non-Western Public Administration and the resurrection of the study and development of public administration philosophy. After all, he ponders, if we cannot do things differently to machines then his apocryphal Dutch Professor could write papers using a computer algorithm; perhaps some already do.

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Mehmet G. Yalcin and Dara G. Schniederjans

Through the concept of ambidexterity and goal-setting theory, this conceptual chapterbuilds a framework which suggestsfuture research opportunities in exploring ways in which to enhance sustainability along the supply chain via the triple bottom line approach. This chapter seeks to promote further exploratory efforts as well as a framework for practitioners interested in enhancing sustainability.

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Colin Jones

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Zsuzsa A. Ferenczy

European normative power has been at the core of debates on its international ‘actorness’, alongside competing concepts such as civilian power and military power. This chapter examines perceptions on Europe's capacity to act as an international actor in its relations with China. It also provides an overview on China’s global role and influence since the 1978 reform and opening up, and assesses views on their relations. Views on Europe’s influence are unenthusiastic. Agreement persists that transformations in the global distribution of power have negatively impacted Europe's global standing, damaging its power of example to the benefit of China’s international influence. Following financial and political troubles, the Union is seen to be in relative decline, and China’s influence on its territory is seen to be growing. In a multi-layered system burdened by national rivalries, Europe’s fragmentation is perceived to have constrained its influence over China, even more so following the crises.

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Jean-Loup Chappelet and Michaël Mrkonjic

Recent corruption scandals involving major international sport organisations (ISOs) have deeply affected the sport system. Consequently, ISOs are being urged to follow ‘good governance’ principles such as transparency, accountability and democracy in order to restore public trust and preclude further unethical behaviour. Nevertheless, no group of major sport organisations and their stakeholders has yet accepted the sort of general and binding code or standard of governance needed to give itconceptual and operational clarity and stability. Moreover, sport organisations are faced with a plethora of governance principles and indicators, contained in almost 50 different frameworks, which might impact their activities. This chapter describes a selection of these frameworks in order to provide a better understanding of sport governance frameworks and issues relating to their implementation. It also suggests an approach for assessing and comparing them, and proposes avenues for further research in the emerging field of sport governance assessment.

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Albert N. Link

This paper presents descriptive findings from 12 case studies of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) award recipients in southeastern states. The focus of the case studies was to determine, to the extent possible, if the Fast Track Initiative encourages more rapid commercialization of research results through the acquisition of private investment capital, and if Fast Track projects progress more rapidly than standard SBIR awards.

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John T. Scott

This paper provides case studies for 14 research and development projects funded in 13 New England companies by the Department of Defense Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The performance of the six Fast Track projects, each conducted by a different company, is compared with the performance of eight non-Fast Track projects.

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Rumiana Yotova

This chapter assesses whether the new EU IAs manage to strike a good balance between economic objectives and environmental considerations not only from the perspective of the constitutional law of the EU with its environmental standards, but also in the context of the global trends in investment law. The EU prides itself as a global leader in the protection of the environment having some of the world’s highest environmental standards. Accordingly, it is both interesting and important to assess the extent to which environmental considerations match these high aspirations by being reflected in the new EU investment policy and indeed, in the actual IAs negotiated with third States. While the new EU IA model is a significant improvement compared to the BIT practice of the majority of the Member States, introducing a number of guarantees for environmental protection in an investment context, it still falls short of actively promoting them.