This chapter examines standards within the historical development of the systems of innovation concept, which has become a core paradigm for the development of science, technology and innovation policy. The historical roots of this concept are traced alongside the evolution of thinking about the role of standards in the economy. The increasingly networked nature of both technology and market is identified as a key conceptual bridge between the subjects of innovation and standards that has cross-fertilized both fields to this day. However, the focus on disruption and change in innovation policy has overshadowed the complementary need for stability, consolidation and industry building, which is where the functional role of standards becomes most visible. A framework is proposed that situates standards and standardization as specific functions in the systems of innovation model.
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Tineke M. Egyedi and J. Roland Ortt
This chapter seeks to define a functional classification that distinguishes between different kinds of standards in order to understand in more detail the different effects of standards on processes of innovation and diffusion. Analysis of relevant standards classifications already in the literature shows rough consensus among a variety of authors as to what these basic functions are, but contains many inconsistencies and omissions. The authors draw up a new classification of primary and secondary functions and test its applicability for innovation research. The effects of innovation as identified in academic and standards practitioner literature are sorted according to these functions, and explore the implications for possible new avenues of innovation research.
John Hudson and Marta Orviska
This chapter reviews the literature on the use of standards by firms. It deals with the reasons why firms adopt standards and the benefits they bring to the firm, with a particular focus on innovations. In doing so the authors distinguish between the many different types of standards, including but not limited to: (1) international management quality standards; (2) regulatory standards such as health and safety; (3) de facto standards such as Windows; and (4) firm-specific standards. They review both the theoretical and empirical literatures, and differentiate between different types of firms, small and large, rural and urban, and also between different sectors, for example manufacturing and services.
This chapter examines the history and context of standardization and patenting. It begins by looking at how the discussion arose as to the relationship between patents and standards, and how this topic became more prominent on the agenda of companies, standard setting organizations, and regulators. It then looks at the empirical facts about patents in standards, focusing on standard-essential patents to describe how this phenomenon developed over time, but also how it is distributed among technology areas, standard setting organizations and specific standards. Concerns and problems are identified that could arise when patented technology is included in standards, leading to a discussion of patent policies in standard setting organizations. Likely reasons are identified as to why companies encounter more frequent conflicts over patents in standards, and a range of policy measures are examined.