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Mark Bray and Peter Waring
In this chapter the authors explore recent advances in Labour Regulation Theory. This exposition of modern theoretical developments follows a brief history of efforts to explain the processes by which the rules of work are determined and the substantive character of the rules themselves. The authors begin by tracing the evolution of bargaining structures theory, and discuss how our own contributed concepts of ‘complexity’ and ‘congruence’ help to address several shortcomings in the traditional theory. They also consider the way in which Labour Regulation Theory has been enriched through research on the influence of institutional and market forces on the shape of labour regulation as well as the contributions of the socio-legal theorists. The chapter, while pointing to the growing explanatory power of Labour Regulation Theory, also contemplates how it might be further enhanced in future.
The EU has been very active in the many ICBs that specialise in agricultural commodities. This is explained by its interest in pursuing the objectives of its common agricultural policy as well as those of its trade policy. In this exercise it has been fortunate not to confront any legal impediments from the statutes of the ICBs, nor from the rest of their membership, to its ambition to be a full member. This ambition of the Union is justified by its conferred powers to act on the international plane in the areas covered by the work of ICBs. However, contrary to the situation in all other ICBs examined here, where the Union is a member, this is not the case in the OIV. This is the result of past practices and political preferences of EU Member States, as well as at times technical considerations pertaining to the content of the work in the OIV. Thus, the EU is prevented from exercising its powers independently in that international institution where, as regards its participation and representation, pre-Lisbon arrangements have survived.
Georg von Richthofen and Eileen Fischer
Institutional logics prescribe goals, identities and norms and shape how actors think, feel and act. Prior research has shown that organizations that draw on multiple logics must find a way to navigate possible tensions between logics. In this chapter, the authors examine Airbnb, a platform matching providers and consumers of accommodation. Airbnb’s founders forged their business opportunity on two contrasting logics: the logic of commerce and the logic of hospitality. Considering Airbnb, the authors investigate how platform-based firms and their users navigate the tensions between logics in a way that allows the platform to be sustained and successful. Drawing on multiple qualitative data sources, they find that Airbnb’s users hybridize these two logics by sustaining the semblance of hospitality within commercial parameters. This involves users performing the roles of the host and the guest, and enacting associated norms and practices. Airbnb’s management has enabled and supported these performances in two ways. The firm has shaped the role of the host and the guest through storytelling and teaches users concrete practices and norms to enact these roles. In addition, the platform equips its users with the tools needed to perform hybridity.
Edward Ashbee, John Dumbrell and Alex Waddan
Antonio La Spina
This chapter explains how the fight against mafias has developed in Italy and abroad. It argues that Italy’s anti-mafia policies are possibly the most incisive in the world, constituting an autonomous policy sector. The study traces the evolution of its policies in the post-war period, demonstrating how a specialised policy community - which includes grassroots organisations - has developed in Italy since the 1990s and has pushed for proactive elaboration and enlargement of legislation, producing some important successes. The second section examines the fight against mafia associations at the European Union level and the influence that the Italian experience has had on debates and developments concerning European Union anti-mafia policy. Finally, it points to how United States policies to combat organised crime have inspired approaches internationally.
Niall Cullinane and Jean Cushen
This chapter reviews Scientific Management. It outlines Scientific Management’s origins and principles, conceptualizing it as a response to the problem of labour power conversion. The chapter also considers the limitations to Scientific Management diffusion in the workplace; identifying the politics of production, the complexity and variety of job tasks and alternative employer priorities as significant countervailing forces. Finally, the chapter concludes by considering the relevance of Scientific Management for the future. It is proposed that Scientific Management will likely persist in some sectors and that opportunities for its expansion may be promised by developments in digital technology and algorithmic learning.
Andrew D. Lohman and Christopher Fuhriman
Military geography has a long, yet controversial status as a subfield within the discipline. Practitioners of the traditional military geography approach have largely led the field in both teaching and research. This approach, however, has prompted critiques from a more critical approach to military geography. This chapter examines the evolution of military geography by focusing on the major defining works that set the course for a traditional approach that continues to this day. By focusing on the authors and their intended purposes, primarily from an American perspective, this examination explains the origins and approaches of this more traditional military geography scholarship in order to place current critiques in context. It demonstrates not only that research and teaching in traditional military geography are inextricability linked, but also that this approach will likely continue for the foreseeable future. This discussion makes clear that there is, and likely will be, an ever-expanding range of topics and research agendas for military geographers, regardless of approach.
Clayton P Gillette
Most analyses of standard form contracts focus on the consumer setting. The underlying assumption is that standard forms in the commercial context reflect efficient terms, because sophisticated parties operating in relatively thick markets would assign transactional costs and risks in a way that is consistent with each party’s capacity to bear them. This chapter discusses multiple sources of inefficiency in the setting of commercial standard form contracts, ranging from market failures to failure to read to parties’ incentives in the drafting process. The chapter also suggests that some clauses that may appear to be inefficient, such as ostensibly vague terms and under-enforced terms, in fact reflect efficient risk allocations. Finally, the chapter discusses some strategies for dealing with potential inefficiency, such as regulation and interpretation.