Strategic planning and implementation issues are evident when organisations seek environmental sustainability outcomes. Critically, this can involve issues between employees and their behaviour, and their connection to, and within, higher-level social structures. Structuration theory is used to determine if employees have the power to change contexts for actions supporting the environment, or if they capitulate in the face of structural resistance. Further, we elaborate on the resources that employees may draw upon and rules that guide them, both of which are used to reproduce or change social structures that enable sustainable practice. We test a structuration framework using two empirical cases examining organisational strategy, thus applying a new lens to develop a unique understanding of these contexts. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion on how the model we use can inform new research and practice to identify and navigate structural barriers to implement environmental sustainability within organisations.
Simon Lockrey, Linda Brennan, Karli Verghese, Warren Staples and Wayne Binney
Angela Ruepert and Linda Steg
Organisations are increasingly recognising that environmental problems will reduce if their employees act more pro-environmentally. However, pro-environmental behaviour (at home or at work) generally implies a conflict between immediate gratifications or financial gains and long-term benefits for the environment. Yet, despite this, people are motivated to act pro-environmentally when they are focused on benefiting the environment. In this chapter, we discuss a conceptual framework to understand, predict and promote pro-environmental behaviour at work. We identify two main factors affecting pro-environmental actions: the values people endorse and contextual factors. We propose that people are more likely to act pro-environmentally at work when they strongly endorse biospheric values. Biospheric values influence behaviour by strengthening the environmental self-identity and personal norms to act pro-environmentally at work. Yet, contextual factors can prevent (or promote) people acting upon their personal norms. Contextual factors may not only inhibit or enable pro-environmental behaviour at work, but they can also affect the extent to which people focus on benefiting the environment, which affects pro-environmental actions. People are more likely to act pro-environmentally when the context makes them focus on the environment, even more so when people have relatively weak biospheric values.
Aharon Tziner and Edna Rabenu
Research on the relationship between environmental variables and performance appraisal is a relatively new departure and therefore we are still learning about the mechanisms by which the environment affects performance appraisal. These effects, at least in part, are not direct and, consequently, there are interfering and intervening variables that mediate between the environment and the behavior of raters and rated employees (Murphy and Cleveland, 1995). In this chapter we examine some of these variables.
Aharon Tziner and Edna Rabenu
We have seen that, however performance assessment is conducted, the element of feedback is critical to its successful outcome. So, once the chosen performance appraisal system (PAS) has been completed, it is time to discuss with the evaluated employee the outcome of his or her appraisal. The employee and direct supervisor usually sit face to face to discuss all the aspects of the employee’s performance and work out differences they may have regarding the perception and significance of the appraisal. The performance appraisal interview provides the employee with a chance to reflect upon the evaluation and, especially if the result is poor, to explain or defend the result. Conversely, the supervisor has an opportunity to discuss the outcome with the employee. Clearly, the context within which, and the way the feedback interview, is conducted impinge on the success of the overall appraisal process. This chapter discusses these issues.
Cristina E. Ciocirlan
This chapter aims to review recent literature on green human resources management (GHRM), outline directions for future research, and discuss implications for practitioners. In particular, the functional activities of green recruiting and selection, green orientation and onboarding, green training and development, green leadership and culture, employee involvement and participation in sustainability, green performance evaluation, green compensation, and green talent management are reviewed. These functional green HR activities are the most developed in the extant literature; they also hold the most promise for the future of GHRM as a discipline (Renwick et al. 2016). To enhance environmental performance, practitioners should perform these activities in an integrated, coherent fashion. They should also make a business case for sustainability by demonstrating the strategic role of GHRM in organisations. Research that crosses disciplinary boundaries and uses cross-cultural samples, qualitative and mixed research methods, and longitudinal time series, is needed to advance the field.
Evolution and Change
Aharon Tziner and Edna Rabenu
Brenton M. Wiernik, Deniz S. Ones, Stephan Dilchert and Rachael M. Klein
This chapter reviews research on the individual antecedents of pro-environmental behaviours and discusses implications of these antecedents for understanding, predicting, and managing employee green behaviours. We review meta-analytic findings on the contributions of environmental awareness/knowledge, environmental attitudes, stable individual differences, demographic characteristics, and interventions on individual pro-environmental behaviour. We also review recent primary studies examining the impact of these antecedents on employee green behaviours in the workplace. Throughout the chapter, we consider the implications of research findings for improving employee environmental performance using human resource management.
Victoria K. Wells, Diana Gregory-Smith and Danae Manika
Bilal Afsar, Asad Shahjehan and Imad Shah
Organisational leaders can motivate followers to engage in pro-environmental behaviours. Although employees’ pro-environmental behaviours are critical to the success of organisational environmental initiatives, there is little understanding of the leadership mechanisms that foster these behaviours. As pro-environmental behaviour is a voluntary behaviour, not every leadership style is likely to be equally effective. This chapter explains important leadership styles that can affect employee’s pro-environmental behaviours. Specifically, the effects of transformational, transactional, environmental, environmental transformational, green entrepreneurial and spiritual leadership on employees’ pro-environmental behaviours are presented. We will also discuss which leaders’ behaviours are critical to motivate an employee to engage in pro-environmental behaviour. This chapter contributes to the literature on, and practice of, the subject by examining various leadership styles, which has hardly been studied, and unveils unique circumstances for decision-making.
John Callewaert and Robert W. Marans
The Sustainability Cultural Indicators Programme (SCIP) is a multi-year project designed to measure and track the culture of sustainability on the University of Michigan’s (U-M) Ann Arbor campus. To date, more than 20,000 U-M students and employees have completed SCIP questionnaires over the past four years. Fifteen key cultural sustainability indicators were developed to measure and track change over time for a range of campus sustainability topics. U-M offers two unique employee programmes to support the development of a culture of sustainability – the Planet Blue Ambassadors programme and the Sustainable Workplace Certification Programme. An overview of these programmes is offered along with an analysis of how SCIP results for programme participants compare to the general campus population. The chapter concludes with a summary of future plans for SCIP, opportunities for collaboration and a set of recommendations for practitioners.