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Frank Ouwens

This chapter deals with the creation of two essential Imagineering formulations: the vision as a description of the aspirational desired future and the concept as the working principle towards that future. The vision provides Imagineers with an answer to the ‘why’ question, the concept provides the ‘how’ to achieve that vision. Vision formulation is a four-step process. First, you choose the subject. Second, you formulate the vision by defining its purpose (the why), principles (the values) and main promise. Third, the vision is checked by looking at its key characteristics. Finally, the vision is shared. The chapter then moves to the concept. The Concept Continuum articulates the differences and similarities between concepts, High Concepts (for experience design) and Creative Tension Engines (CTEs) (for experience innovation). The chapter ends by presenting an instrument called The Molecule Principle. This is very helpful for concept analysis as well as development and further formulation.

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Lauren Martin

In this chapter, the author traces the growing linkages between criminal justice and immigration enforcement systems in the United States, forced mobility between detention centers, alternative to detention, and externalization. Taken together, these practices show how detention is linked up with other spatial practices to ‘widen the net’ of detention and deportation in the United States. In addition, the institutional and infrastructural connections between criminal and immigration procedures show not only how they increasingly work together, but also how enforcement policy uses criminal procedures to produce detainable and deportable subjects. Detention is not a singular spatial practice of enclosure, but is embedded in broader networks of discipline mobility, legal practices, and criminalization that combine a range of spatial strategies to control human mobility. These different spatial practices of migration control demonstrate the ‘flexible territoriality’ of immigration policing.

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Henk van Houtum and Rodrigo Bueno Lacy

The periodically updated Frontex map of undocumented migration (called ‘risk analysis’) to the European Union (EU) has become the predominant cartographic narrative in the debate on the EU border policy. In this chapter the authors conduct a critical iconological study of this Frontex migration map to deconstruct the implicit deadly restrictive border regime recommendations it suggests. Through a dissection of three concrete iconographic features (the grid, arrows and frame) they show that this map not only builds upon a phobic and nativist discourse but it also aggravates it. Its visual arrangement evokes an invasion of unwanted African and Muslim migrants that is calling for the border closure of the EU by any means necessary. The authors argue that the Frontex map aligns with a sinister narrative of migration that is rehabilitating the nationalist-populist ideology and anti-humanist policies that the EU’s postwar ethos aimed at preventing. They get no sense at all of undocumented migrants being among the most vulnerable and materially insecure people in the world. On the contrary, it is the EU who is portrayed as a victim. Therefore, although intended to help protect the EU, this surrealist migration map is actually stoking EUroskepticism and xenophobia, thereby undermining the EU’s own foundations. Surreal. 

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Edited by Charles A. Ingene, James R. Brown and Rajiv P. Dant

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Zeinab Karake, Rana A. Shalhoub and Huda Ayas

This chapter provides an overview of the entire book and establishes the context of the work and research carried out. It discusses the importance of the subject in hand from an economic, social and political perspective. It covers examples of cybersecurity attacks of the modern age and highlights the devastating impact of those attacks. The chapter briefly covers the two main theories used in analyzing the content of cybersecurity policies and strategies: the resource-based theory and deterrence theory. In addition, the chapter discusses the state of the legal system in the developing world as far as the protection of cyber space is concerned. Further, this chapter briefly discusses the state of cybersecurity policies and strategies in developing and emerging economies and highlights the importance of cooperation among developing and developed countries and NGOs for the purpose of protecting cyber space. The chapter concludes with a roadmap of the research undertaken and a summary of the chapters that follow.

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Zeinab Karake, Rana A. Shalhoub and Huda Ayas

This chapter provides an overview of the move to the digital economy and the state of technology and security in cyber space. The threat of cybercrime to economies and businesses is introduced in this chapter. It covers cybercrime in the financial sector, which is the prime target of cybercriminal activities worldwide, and discusses the drivers behind those attacks. The chapter also covers the development of cybercriminal activities as an industry, identifying the three prime categories: (1) crimeware-as-a-service; (2) cybercrime infrastructure-as-a-service; and (3) hacking-as-a-service. Edward Snowden is also discussed as a special case in this chapter. The chapter then moves on to discuss cybercrime and nation states, specifically in the four countries identified as hubs for cybercriminal activities: Russia, China, North Korea and Iran. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the drivers of cybercrime in developing/emerging economies and why those drivers are turning many countries into fertile grounds for cybercriminal activities.

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Zeinab Karake, Rana A. Shalhoub and Huda Ayas

This chapter covers the various theoretical foundations of cybersecurity in general and cybersecurity polices and strategies in particular. In addition to the resource based view (RBV) theory, a number of other theories are covered, which were recently advanced in the literature to assess cybersecurity. Three theories are highlighted: the economic, the public goods, and deterrence theories. The chapter covers deterrence theory and the four approaches associated with it. Specifically, we emphasize the role cyber deterrence plays in drafting cybersecurity policies, through declaration, credibility and the use of denial measures. We also indicate that in order for cybersecurity policies to be effective: (1) they must include reference to the ability to attribute; (2) they need to possess the ability to communicate deterrence capabilities; and (3) they need to have a certain level of credibility to act on the stated intentions. Achieving those three conditions is not as easy as it might sound. The chapter concludes by noting some important conceptual and methodological issues that need to be addressed by future research adopting the various theoretical perspectives of cybersecurity.

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Zeinab Karake, Rana A. Shalhoub and Huda Ayas

This chapter provides an overview of the economics of security covering models that helped define economic-based models for the Internet economy from the 1990s, and trying to identify gaps in models’ structures and implementation. The chapter also covers the development of cybersecurity policies and strategies in the various economic blocs in developing and emerging economies. Content analysis of cybersecurity policies of the 63 countries in our sample is performed based on five constructs identified by the authors: economic, political, social, technical and political. Countries are assessed based on those constructs and the results are published in five tables. The discussion then moves to formulate the hypotheses dealing with possible determinants believed to determine the levels of quality, maturity and compliance of a country’s cybersecurity policies with international standards.

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Zeinab Karake, Rana A. Shalhoub and Huda Ayas

The main thrust of Chapter 5 deals with identifying appropriate variables to measure the level of maturity of cybersecurity policy identified in the formulated hypotheses, create the cybersecurity index, develop a predictive statistical model and present the results of the regression analysis, isolating the statically significant variables. The chapter also discusses the classification of the countries in our sample into five different categories based on the level of maturity of their cybersecurity policy: These are the Cheetahs, the Gazelles, the Bears, the Koalas and the Tortoises.

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Zeinab Karake, Rana A. Shalhoub and Huda Ayas

This chapter summarizes the research done and presented in the book; it also identifies a set of recommendations for future research, specifically longitudinal country analysis to provide more depth in the impact of cybersecurity policy on the protection of cyber space.