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Gerard Whelan and Peter White

This chapter assesses BRT development in Britain, in which about 12 substantial schemes were in operation by June 2017. These include both guided and unguided busways, all of which are integrated with the local road networks to offer through services. Bus operation as such is generally commercial, with capital investment provided largely by public authorities. Given extensive rail systems in Britain, densities of traffic are relatively low. Encouraging ridership figures and diversion from cars are reported for several schemes. Economic appraisal prior to construction enables anticipated benefit-cost ratios to be identified, and in two cases ex-post ratios may also be calculated from observed data, which are higher than the forecast case. Detailed assessment is provided of the Fastway and South Hampshire cases, and of modal diversion and energy savings arising from the Cambridgeshire case. A tabular outline is also provided of the principal characteristics of other schemes.

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Jennie C. Stephens

Throughout the world, energy systems are transforming to more efficient, renewable-based configurations constituting a large-scale socio-technical transition. This energy system change has the potential to strengthen societal resilience in multiple ways. Despite this potential, depending on how the renewable energy transition progresses, energy system change could perpetuate, rather than reduce, vulnerabilities, societal inequality and the unequal distribution of risks and benefits associated with energy. Also depending on how resilience is framed, in terms of scale and time-frame, different types of energy system changes with variable societal impact could be prioritized and justified by the resilience imperative. Given this complexity, the novel concept of energy democracy provides a valuable lens to assess societal resilience and guide energy system changes toward contributing to reducing, rather than perpetuating, vulnerabilities and inequalities associated with current fossil-fuel based energy systems. By explicitly connecting energy policy with social and political outcomes, energy democracy re-articulates energy systems as distributed public works that distribute social benefits among local communities. The energy democracy concept extends the social demands of energy systems beyond access, reliability and affordability to include issues of social justice and jobs as well as a broad suite of environmental, health and economic benefits. By explicitly connecting societal issues that are generally dealt with independently, energy democracy framing provides a social, political and cultural framework to assess societal resilience during energy system transformation. The aims of this chapter are (1) to explore the potential for enhancing societal resilience during the renewable energy transition, (2) to propose an energy democracy approach to assess societal resilience and guide change as energy systems shift away from predominantly centralized fossil-fuel based systems toward more distributed, decentralized and heterogeneous renewable-based systems, and (3) to review policies that embrace an energy democracy approach.

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Simone Lovera-Bilderbeek

Chapter 5 focuses on the assumptions that triggered many actors to promote REDD+. It describes how REDD+ was promoted as a global payment for environmental services regime, and discusses some of the basic assumptions about the environmental effectiveness, economic efficiency and social equity of payments for environmental services regimes. It subsequently elaborates on the assumed effectiveness of REDD+ as a climate change mitigation regime, and its environmental effectiveness as a forest conservation regime. It looks at the assumptions different actors had about the potential economic efficiency of REDD+ as a forest conservation and climate mitigation regime. Lastly, the chapter analyzes the assumptions actors had about the potential social equity of the REDD+ regime and what they envisaged when they promoted the regime.

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G. M.P. Swann

The physicists were shocked at the assumptions the economists were making – that the test was not a match against reality, but whether the assumptions were the common currency of the field. I can just see Phil Anderson, laid back with a smile on his face, saying, ‘You guys really believe that?’ W. Mitchell Waldrop

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Mervyn K. Lewis and Ahmad Kaleem

The chapter examines why interest financing, and usurious behaviour generally, was so disfavoured by all three religions, and how they were grappling with the same issues, whether couched in terms of usury, interest or riba. The Old Testament has clear injunctions prohibiting usury, which carry through to Christianity. Nevertheless, Judaism was able to avoid these rulings via what has become known as the ‘Deuteronomic double standard’ and by developing profit-sharing via partnerships. This latter path is the recommended approach in Islam, and the authors consider the Persian/Arab scholar Ravi’s five reasons for prohibiting riba. Christianity was, if anything, even more strongly opposed to usury, and the authors set out ten justifications that have been offered for its opposition. In the end, however, Christianity relented and the economist Jeremy Bentham, in what can be seen as an early account of the modern Western position, propounded why it should do so.

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Don Wignall and Ian Wallis

This chapter summarizes the development and the impact of the Auckland Northern Busway (New Zealand(NZ)) along with connecting bus routes and associated services (collectively referred to as ‘the busway’). The busway is a highly significant project in a NZ context, being the only segregated busway in NZ and one of the most substantial public transport projects implemented in NZ within the past 50 years. The chapter describes the impacts of the busway on bus patronage, bus travel times and traffic volumes and conditions on the adjacent main arterial highway. It highlights the important role of segregated (‘rapid transit’) modes in catering for peak-period travel demand to/from the Auckland central business district and outlines the contribution of the busway to accommodating travel demand increases in the northern corridor. Current busway-related issues and future plans are reviewed, including options for further segregation in the city centre and/or potential conversion of the busway to light rail as a means of accommodating anticipated further increases in travel demand in the corridor. Some wider implications of the busway development are also outlined.

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Horatia Muir Watt

When the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers Holdings, Inc. (LBHI) produced shockwaves throughout the global financial market and calls for regulation of systemic risk, the role of private international law was hardly a central preoccupation with either financial institutions or the general public. It is well known that Lehman’s over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives portfolio (containing over 900,000 OTC derivatives transactions) was governed by the default provisions of the ISDA Master Agreement. On the terrain of private law, the question arose in the aftermath of the crisis as to whether the Master Agreement played any meaningful role in Lehman Brothers’ bankruptcy and its catastrophic outcome and more generally whether a modification of its terms could reduce the systemic risk associated with derivatives transactions. In respect of the transnational dimension of the Agreement, a more theoretical debate concerned the extent to which attempts to create global certainty by the financial industry through the use of standardised agreements could be seen as a present-day renewal of the lex mercatoria. Might privately created norms provide an alternative frame of reference for the governance of contracts concluded in global financial markets? In such a perspective, the interference of divergent local laws was seen to thwart the operation of uniform contractual terms. However, the presence of a conflict of laws in relation to the interpretation of the ISDA Master Agreement also suggests that private international law plays an essential role in constituting the rules of the game against the backdrop of which the Master Agreement is given legal effect.

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Jia Gao and Yuanyuan Su

Chapter 6 looks at the awkward roles of the county and township governments in the new rural building campaign, which partially result from the frequent change in the bureaucratic management and the goal-oriented performance associated with the specific objectives of different reform programmes. There are some studies of the behaviour and roles of county and township governments, but few studies have considered how they act, react, and interact in the context of implementing national strategic policy initiatives. This chapter starts with a brief explanation of why the roles of governments at these two levels have become awkward in policy implementation and the new rural urbanisation campaign. The second section analyses the front-line roles of these governments in the campaign in Laiwu. The third section examines the more proactive and strategic roles these governments have played in mobilising participation in the scheme.

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Carolyn M. Youssef-Morgan and Karl Petersen

This chapter discusses the benefits of positivity in general, and specifically psychological capital (PsyCap), an evidence-based multidimensional resource that includes hope, efficacy, resilience and optimism. After an overview of positive psychology, positive organizational scholarship (POS), positive organizational behavior (POB), and the theoretical progression of PsyCap, we focus on the benefits of developing PsyCap in the workplace. PsyCap and its constituent resources are malleable, and thus open to development. PsyCap development can lead to quantifiable returns on investment, which can help align the benefits of a psychologically healthy workplace with the strategic decision making and scarce resource allocation realities of today’s workplace.

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George Andreopoulos

This chapter takes a critical look at the evolving responsibility of international organizations (IOs) and the challenges facing efforts to hold them accountable for human rights violations. The main argument advanced here is that while IO responsibility, especially when contrasted with state responsibility, is considerably less developed, it offers a promising pathway to rights promotion and protection especially in light of the density of rule-based transnational interactions and the growth of institutional mechanisms and fora for advocacy and accountability. More specifically, IO practice has opened up several pathways to the pursuit of responsibility, with the most promising one being situations where IOs exercise sovereign state-type functions (administration of territories). However, whether examining IO activity in peace and security or in economic assistance, it is important to stress that none of the areas of IO activity are or can be perceived as strictly compartmentalized spaces. Rather, they are terrains on which the dynamic interplay between ongoing legal developments, reforms in response to internal and external pressures and the proliferation of monitoring platforms generate entry points for coordinated action to advance human rights claims.