A green supply chain is a whole-life closed-loop supply chain that encompasses the product’s 5Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle, reclamation, and remanufacturing). Consumers play a significant role in this chain; for instance, by deciding the extent that they will recycle or reuse a product. First, the chapter describes the consumer purchase decision-making process in the context of the green supply chain. Second, the authorsdiscuss consumers’ knowledge and attitudes toward the green supply chain. Third, they detail where the consumer encounters the green supply chain. They close with a discussion of recommended future research ideas to address the gap between consumer attitudes toward the environment and actual purchasing behavior.
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Christopher Groening and Qingyun Zhu
The king, dictator, employer or teacher who does things for others which they might have accomplished for themselves thereby weakens the capacity and worth of citizens, workers and students. (Lindeman, 1926: 48)
Honggang Xu and Yuefang Wu
Tourism geographers are always under pressure to justify and explain the contributions of tourism studies to the geographic discipline. This chapter attempts to take a critical view to reflect this issue through the following points: 1) The application of the geography theories to address the tourism phenomenon itself is one contribution. The application of geographic theories in this field can show the relative advantage of geographic disciplines in analyzing and understanding emerging social issues. 2) Tourism geography is one sub-discipline within geography. Its growth would definitely lead to the growth of geography studies. 3) The theories developed to understand the complexityand uniqueness of the tourism phenomenon may not be necessary for other geographic phenomena which are much simpler and less sophisticated. 4) The identification of the complexityand uniqueness of the tourism phenomenon is important forfacilitating the acknowledgement of tourism geography’s contribution in geography knowledge. 5) To build adialogue with other sub-disciplines of geographies, tourism geographers need to address some common themes and publish outside tourism geography journals.
Edited by Joseph Sarkis
John T. Scott
This paper explains the use of cost-benefit analysis for the evaluation of global public–private partnerships that combine international intergovernmental organizations with national governments, businesses, and the non-profit organizations of civil society. The partnerships allocate resources to projects that are socially desirable from an international perspective, yet without the global partnerships will not be performed. Cost-benefit analysis can identify and compare the social and the private costs and benefits of the projects, thereby identifying cases where global public–private partnerships will provide socially desirable results when markets alone will not. Cost-benefit analysis can assess the necessity and the sufficiency of strategies proposed by the partnerships. The paper discusses modifications to cost-benefit analysis required for its use in evaluations of the global public-private partnerships, explaining the need for market-centered valuations, but also explaining the role of alternative social valuations.
Jonathan Kirk, Thomas Samuels and Lee Finch
This chapter introduces the concept of credit and its various forms, including whether the provision of the credit is regulated, unregulated or exempt within the meaning of the Consumer Credit Act 1974. It continues to examine the various ways in which credit products can be mis-sold including, but not limited to, misleading advertising, failures to provide required information, failures to properly assess credit worthiness and affordability, the giving of inappropriate advice and the selling of unsuitable credit. Specific consideration is also given to the legislative provisions which can give rise to mis-selling claims against creditors for goods and services which are financed by the credit product. Finally, the unfair relationship provisions of the Consumer Credit Act 1974, which provides borrowers with a unique cause of action, are considered in detail and the particular issues which apply to high-cost short-term credit are discussed.
Robert Sroufe and Steven A. Melnyk
This chapter presents an overview of measures, metrics and performance measurement management systems (PMMS). This overview is necessary since these topics often include a great deal of confusion. The chapter first defines the major constructs, and identifies and discusses their roles (with an emphasis on the role of measures as communication, rather than control, as the major role. Discussion on position measures and metrics within the changing sustainability business environment also appears. A brief review of the state of research pertaining to performance measurement management and sustainability provides additional insights. Finally, the chapter identifies areas in need of further investigation.
This chapter interrogates the concept of ‘good governance’ in sport from a cultural perspective and suggests that any account that fails to examine the role of culture in shaping the meaning and practices of good governance will be incomplete and misleading. It addresses two interrelated questions: i) Is it possible to have a universal definition of governance in the vastly culturally diverse world of sport, and what might that lead to? ii) What exactly does good governance tell us about governance? The answer to the first question suggests that, while such universal definitions already exist in sport, their conceptual and practical value remains highly questionable. Regarding the second question, it is argued that various studies have demonstrated that good governance indicators are lacking consistency, correctness and replicability, and there has been a paucity of research to critically examine their role in sport.
Tobias Böhmelt and Zorzeta Bakaki
How does mediation diffuse from one crisis to another? Previous research focuses on geographical ties to explain this. This chapter contributes to this work by adding culture as a substantively meaningful link among disputes that may facilitate the “traveling” of mediation. Ties, if strong and well established, facilitate the flow of information. If two crises are tied to each other via such links, actors might have learned from what happened in the past, even if this occurred in another conflict. The authors contend that cultural similarities between two crises will have a positive impact on the chances of seeing mediation if there was mediation in another dispute. Shared cultural characteristics can lower coordination and collaboration costs. The authors also distinguish between learning and emulation mechanisms and, eventually, report that mediation generally diffuses via cultural ties connecting crises, but it is primarily successful mediation attempts that drive this result.
Li Lin, Dimitrios P. Tsomocos and Alexandros P. Vardoulakis
We assess the role that monetary policy plays in the decision to default using a General Equilibrium model with collateralized loans, trade in fiat money and production. The monetary authority extends long-term credit against risky collateral along with its traditional monetary operations. The value of collateral depends on traditional monetary policy and agents can optimally choose to default depending on the relative value of the collateral to the face value of the loan. Default results in foreclosure, higher borrowing costs, inefficient investment and a decrease in total output. We show that pre-crisis contractionary monetary policy interacts with Fisherian debt-deflation dynamics and can increase the probability that a crisis occurs.