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Dickie Liang-Hong Ke and Enrique de Diego

This chapter discusses the current status of innovation and entrepreneurship in China, especially in the TMT (technology, media, and telecommunications) sector, and the journey of Chinese innovation going abroad. Although China was until recently perceived as the land of counterfeiting, particularly in the software and telecommunications sectors, over the last decade there has a dramatic increase of Chinese success stories related to innovation. China has made significant technological progress and Chinese enterprises have invested heavily in technological companies in Europe and in the United States. This chapter explores the reasons for this shift towards innovation and evaluates the benefits that Chinese innovation may bring to the world. The authors review three historical periods in China with different approaches to innovation and then discuss five examples of Chinese companies in the TMT sector which are showing the world China’s powerful new role in innovation and entrepreneurship. The chapter discusses the phenomenon of new startups and the many “unicorn” enterprises which are now competing both with each other and with other countries. The chapter concludes with the authors’ insights on where China is going with this shift back to innovation, and present their view on the potential impact that this may bring to the world in the next couple of decades.

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Gérald Arboit

The history of the Chinese intelligence services is largely unknown. The aim of this chapter is to examine those services, in all their diversity (including the Second Department of the People’s Liberation Army’s General Staff Department, Central Investigation Department, and International Liaison Department, both depending on the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, and the Ministry of State Security), and their operations in Africa. Largely based on unedited Western intelligence sources completed by specified scholars’ work, this chapter offers an image largely different from what media generally suggests. Two periods of activity thus appear, one influencing the other in its forms. The first corresponds to China’s desire to appear as a revolutionary power (1958–64). The second opens in 1999 and merges with Africa’s race to China. The operational principles adopted in support of the national liberation movements are still those that are in operation today in the approach of China’s intelligence services in Africa: diplomatic competition with Taiwan, and preventing the appearance of a new actor in the Indian Ocean (yesterday the Soviet Union, today India).

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Mrinal Ghosh, Kellilynn M. Frias and Robert F. Lusch

In this chapter the authors introduce a question of significant import to marketing managers: Where should their firm locate their offerings in the value chain? We term this concept as product-form strategies and using the service-dominant logic aver that the four principal product-form strategies, viz. sell intellectual know-how, sell intermediate components, sell final goods, or sell service solutions derived from the goods, are alternative ways in which firms can offer service to end-users. The authors first illustrate these product-form alternatives through a variety of examples and then draw on the literature in service-dominant logic and organizational economics to develop a framework that suggests the key underlying mechanisms that determine when and why firms choose one alternative product-form over another. Finally, the authors provide insights on how these choices impact marketing decisions throughout the value chain.

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Ntina Tzouvala

Having dominated the discipline since its professionalization at the end of the nineteenth century, the standard of civilization gradually lost its predominance after the Second World War and came to be seen as an embarrassing anachronism, largely inconsequential for contemporary international law. This chapter challenges this conventional narrative about the gradual demise of the standard of civilization. It does so in conversation with critical historiographies of international law, including the work of Antony Anghie, Martti Koskenniemi and China Miéville. First, the chapter provides a brief history of ‘civilization’, emphasizing that its disappearance as an explicit concept was accompanied by its metastasis in the grammar of international law, the discipline’s structures and patterns of argumentation. Second, it seeks to systematize the meaning and functions of ‘civilization’, pointing both at its transformations over time and at its continuing entanglement with the logic and contradictions of the capitalist mode of production.

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Ágnes Kövér

This chapter analyzes the challenges encountered by clinical legal education (CLE) as a new methodology of legal education in a traditional law school. CLE indisputably combines educational and social ends in win–win relations. This concept incorporates practical experience, concomitant skill enhancement and a critical approach into law students’ university training. The praxis serves the higher understanding of law and the legal profession, as well as the social needs relating to remedying deficiencies of legal services. The chapter attempts to understand the structural and institutional pitfalls which resulted in repudiating the incorporation of clinics into the organizational structure of the law school. CLE faced multiple adversities when it sought to increase teaching and learning opportunities that extend elitist university goals toward a broadened mission of enhancing social justice. The chapter highlights the determinative role of the law school in the production of loyal elites, and points out the fragility of the independence and autonomy of tertiary education.

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U-Seok Seo

This chapter discusses the diverse relationships between creativity and coffee tourism in Gangneung, South Korea. Considering coffee tourism as one kind of food and drink tourism, this chapter reviews how previous research has related food and drink tourism with creativity and then outlines how the rise of coffee tourism has been possible in a small city such as Gangneung and how the city’s use of creativity contributed to this achievement. Gangneung’s coffee tourism provides creative tourism opportunities to acquire knowledge about different methods of making coffee and to participate in a variety of coffee-related DIY experiences. In addition, creative spaces are made in cafés, which function as cultural spaces. Coffee tourism now plays a pivotal role in fostering favourable circumstances for culture-based urban regeneration through attracting taste-oriented visitors and enhancing place image. Suggestions for further research on creative tourism in general as well as with respect to food and drink tourism are given. The author suggests a more differentiated understanding of creative tourism is needed to understand a variety of creative tourism developments (such as the ‘snack culture’ type), the creative convergence evident in Gangneung’s experiences is occurring in a great variety of ways and needs to be studied more thoroughly, and the role of media and celebrities in promoting creative tourism could be a significant topic for future research.

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Yannick Radi

Coherence is a fundamental concept which raises fierce debates among international law scholars and practitioners. Some regard coherence as a ‘pathological desire’; others view it as being inherent to (international) law. This chapter focuses on that political struggle and the views expressed in both international legal theory and practice. It first proposes a brief overview of the fundamental issues debated among legal theorists in relation to coherence and the content determination of the law. It then introduces and critically analyses the main arguments put forth by international legal theorists – mainly opponents – as to the relevance of coherence in discussion of the content determination of international law. Finally, it discusses coherence from the standpoint of international legal practice; more precisely, it focuses on international investment law, which, because of the features of its treaty and arbitration practices, provides an insightful case study to better grasp the concept.

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Ali Mirchi, Josiah Heyman, George Tchobanoglous, Daisuke Minakata, Shane Walker, Maryam Samimi, R. Brian Guerrero, Diego Sanchez and Robert M. Handler

This chapter discusses wastewater reuse as a strategy to cope with water shortages, highlighting the importance of community decision making for successful implementation of the strategy. A brief overview of techno-economic and social dimensions of potable reuse of treated wastewater is presented along with examples of indirect and direct wastewater reuse applications for drinking purposes around the world. Two important case studies in San Diego, California, and El Paso, Texas are examined to offer insights into barriers to wide acceptability of the technology. The chapter underscores the importance of effective outreach and public relations campaigns, and public engagement in informed, transparent and democratic decision making to adopt potable reuse of treated wastewater as a component of water supply portfolio in water scarce regions.

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John Murray

The purpose of this chapter is to describe how an initiative at Indiana State University called the Community Semester has made strides toward building a bridge between the residents of the community of Terre Haute and the university’s largest college. The Community Semester is a 15-week series of lectures, panel discussions, and arts events that the faculty share with the city’s residents. The chapter discusses the origins of the Community Semester, its connection with the strategic plan and vision of the institution, how the event is delivered, and the event’s strengths and shortcomings. The chapter concludes with a discussion of general issues associated with town–gown relations and looks at how events like the Community Semester can be used to leverage a better and more productive relationship between college, university, and city.

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Laura Alexandra Helbling, Stefan Sacchi and Christian Imdorf

This chapter investigates the extent to which graduating in a bad economy scars the careers of youth cohorts in terms of increased future unemployment and over-representation in fixed-term and involuntary part-time work. Using data from the European Union’s Labour Force Survey, we explore these dynamics of scarring from a cross-country comparative perspective, focusing on the United Kingdom, Germany, Switzerland, Spain and Finland. These countries make for interesting cases because they differ remarkably on institutional and economic dimensions. Overall, we find that bad luck in the timing of labour market entry can scar future careers, even over the long run. Manifold factors might explain the observed variation in scarring effects across different institutional settings. A sound conceptualization of the institutional framing of long-term scarring effects requires a well-established micro theory of these effects’ behavioural foundations, regarding both employers and jobseekers or workers.