This chapter offers brief descriptions of programs from two institutions that can be adopted, adapted, or adjusted. The intention behind this chapter is to share program designs and activities and provide a space for reflection on how these activities may translate into others’ own institutional reality. The examples provided in this chapter give educators a wide variety of activities that can be generated through careful consideration of students’ maturity and developmental stages. For example, in some cases, programs are intentionally targeted to first-year students and help them transition to a higher level of learning beyond high school. In other instances, programs focus on seniors as they prepare to make the transition out of college.
Gama Perruci and Sadhana W. Hall
This chapter focuses on educators’ self-reflection. It begins by detailing the self-awareness, cultural, and technical competencies educators must first cultivate in themselves, so they may model the values, attitudes, and behaviors the program seeks to develop in its learners. Leadership educators in curricular and co-curricular programs need to continually assess their leadership presence, understand their audience, and strive to demonstrate congruence between values and behavior. The chapter presents strategies for using self-awareness to create an optimal learning environment. The chapter begins with a discussion of what is meant by self-awareness, and then presents examples of how a number of educators have cultivated this awareness and effectively applied it in shaping their learning environments. Leadership educators must continually evaluate their effectiveness in creating an emotionally, socially, and intellectually supportive space for their learners.
Growth in the size and complexity of higher education worldwide in the latter part of the twentieth century has meant that setting effective government policy for universities and other tertiary education providers is a challenge, with much at stake for the performance, quality and accountability of systems. Those charged with making higher education policy must balance competing interests while being mindful that failure often carries significant costs for students, governments and institutions alike. This chapter explores useful insights for both scholars and policy makers from policy breakdown in higher education, using two examples from Australia to illustrate lessons to be drawn from policy settings that have not delivered as intended. First, it examines policy change initiated in the 1990s which led to the unsuccessful merger of some higher education institutions. Second, it draws lessons from the failure of policy initiatives intended to expand the proportion of Australian students that have faced socioeconomic disadvantage. The chapter synthesises lessons from these distinct domains and comments on their applicability to higher education systems.
Quality in Higher Education was established in the early years of the quality revolution and has published 529 articles in the 21 annual volumes up to and including 2015. The journal was entitled Quality in Higher Education to enable a focus on all aspects of higher education quality rather than just quality assurance. The articles have ranged from conceptual and pragmatic enquiries into the nature of quality in higher education through explorations of quality assurance systems to the impact they have on student learning. This chapter explores what has been learned from these three million words.
Harvey P. Weingarten and Martin Hicks
Assessing the value, performance and contribution of a public postsecondary system is important to government, students, institutions and the public. As part of its legislated mandate, the Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario (HEQCO) evaluated the performance of the Ontario postsecondary system by comparing it to those in Canada’s other nine provinces. The primary purpose of this chapter is to describe the thinking that went into the design of that report, entitled Canadian Postsecondary Performance: Impact 2015. These design considerations resulted in a publication that was innovative in its analysis and data presentation, with 34 different indicators, focused largely on outcomes. It also provided a clear assessment of the role of funding levels in the performance of Canada’s postsecondary systems. We believe these design considerations are important, instructive and relevant to any jurisdiction seeking to assess the performance of its postsecondary system. The major findings were that: (1) postsecondary education is linked positively to labour market success, individual earnings, citizen engagement and contributions to the economy but every province had areas that could be improved, and (2) postsecondary system performance varies among Canada’s ten provinces but performance levels had no correlation with funding levels. The key contributions of this national performance report card were: (1) to identify specific areas where jurisdictions could focus to improve their postsecondary systems, (2) to highlight important data gaps where better and more meaningful measurements were needed, and (3) to reinforce that performance regimes should concentrate on outputs and outcomes, rather than inputs – particularly to refocus the discussion from how much institutions get to what outcomes are achieved.
Marian Mahat and Martin Hanlon
Public universities in Australia have witnessed changes in performance assessment and accountability arrangements. The development of national performance assessment frameworks is seen as an essential step to ensure that universities have clarity and accountability around how their performance will be assessed, and how they can assess themselves in various dimensions of activities. This chapter provides two examples of contemporary national performance assessment frameworks in Australia: Quality Indicators for Learning and Teaching (QILT) and Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA). It presents some observations about the Australian experience, and discusses the impact of national performance assessments on universities and institutional research.
Carol Scott, Suzanne C. de Janasz and Joy Schneer
Over the last 30 years, the workforce has become more demographically diverse, which reflects changes in jobs and careers. No longer does an individual (person) join an organization out of high school or college and stay until s/he retires. Organizational researchers also note that the current work environment demonstrates how the psychological contract between an organization and its employees has changed: Employment is at the whim of the organization in its increasingly competitive environment, and employees (who are responsible for navigating their advancement) are more loyal to their profession than to an organization. They change jobs more often, share jobs, and work virtually. While traditionally, the HR organization watched over employees’ careers, employees – and by extension HR professionals – must develop the ability to network, seek mentors, and balance competing work/family roles – especially as they change over the life cycle. The diverse exercises included in this chapter provide ample opportunities to start this process.
Vicki R. Whiting, Maury Peiperl and Suzanne C. de Janasz
Whereas training is the focus of developing the skills of employees as individuals, organization development is all about helping an organization develop as it grows, matures, and even nears its end. A critical component of organizational development is leading and managing change – dealing with which is difficult for more humans. The first exercise focuses on change at the individual level; after all, if individuals can’t implement change on themselves, how can they model and lead change processes aimed at an organization full of people? The other exercises focus on organizational change and development.
Edmund Chow, Julie Palmer, Phanikiran Radhakrishnan and Sunil Sookdeo
The new employees are hired, and they are working hard … but how effectively are they working? Perhaps one of the most important and difficult tasks of a manager is to give employees feedback on their performance. Much has been said about the fear of giving feedback, and this explains why it is delayed, done poorly, or avoided completely. Appraising performance requires great skill and can be used with a variety of approaches, some of which are the subject of the exercises which follow.
Richard J. Shavelson, Olga Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia and Julián P. Mariño
A learning indicator may qualitatively describe a learning process, or, more often, quantitatively summarize an important aspect of learning with a single or composite statistic. A qualitative indicator might take the form of a flow chart generated from a ‘think aloud’ from a student explaining why there is a change of season, or a categorization of students’ explanations for why things sink and float. A quantitative indicator might be a measure of the change in a student’s performance over time or an estimate of a college’s value added to student learning. We sketch the broad field of learning performance indicators used internationally and quickly narrow our focus to indicators based on direct measures of learning as opposed to number of units completed, graduation rates, number of degrees earned, and students’ self-report. We include both direct behavioural indicators of performance from which learning is inferred (‘performance assessments’) as well as indicators of competencies predictive of real-world performance (‘competency assessments’). We argue that performance indicators of learning are delicate instruments, influenced by how learning is measured and modelled to produce the indicator and that a profile of multiple student learning indicators is needed to capture the complexity of measuring performance and learning.