There is an ever greater reliance by societies on satellites. Satellite-enabled services are used in a variety of sectors, including agriculture, energy, and TV broadcasting and play an important role in creating and/or facilitating service experiences. This chapter explores the structure of the UK space industry, highlighting the interdependencies between manufacturing and service functions and the emergence of hybrid products and production processes. The satellite industry consists of three sub-sectors in the UK: the manufacture of satellites; operation of satellites; and providers of satellite-enabled services. The differences and interrelationships between these three linked sub-sectors are identified and explored with a focus on identifying innovation processes. The chapter highlights the importance of exploring the interdependencies between manufacturing and service functions and suggests that research should shift the focus of attention away from manufacturing or services to a focus on understanding the creation of value through the provision and consumption of service-enabled experiences.
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This chapter discusses four central perspectives to service innovation: managing innovation processes, taking a strategic stance to innovation, promoting user-based and employee-driven innovation, and answering the need for systemic innovations. The chapter shows that Jon Sundbo has contributed in a notable way to research in all these areas. He has introduced the idea of balanced empowerment to emphasize the importance of strategy in the inducement and control of innovation activities. His framework of strategic reflexivity focuses on the top-down processes that integrate distributed novelties. On the other hand, customer encounter–based innovation supplements the picture by analysing the bottom-up processes in which grassroots employees transmit users’ ideas into the organization. The concept of after-innovation points out that the active role of users also continues after the launch. At the broader societal level, Sundbo has participated in the discussion about the systemic nature of innovations by analysing value chain innovations.
Matthijs J. Janssen and Pim den Hertog
Service innovation is increasingly recognized as the (re)design of multidimensional and complex systems. Besides implying the need for comprehensive and validated conceptualizations, this perspective also asks for an enhanced understanding of the interdependencies between the dimensions making up a service and of the strategies to deal with them. Promising in this respect is complex systems theory in the form of NK-models, based on an evolutionary interpretation of innovation. In this analytical structure, new solutions and experiences are regarded as emerging from search processes in a multidimensional design space. By applying NK-logic in the context of services, we advance the multidimensional approach to service innovation. We explore eight qualitatively studied service innovations by mapping each of them on one multidimensional conceptualization. We argue that familiarity with common dimensions, and archetypical modifications therein, might provide valuable guidance to service innovators. Furthermore, our cases provide illustrations of an adaptive search strategy in services.
Jørn Kjølseth Møller
This chapter aims to examine and discuss the impact of ‘servitization’ and ‘service infusion’ in manufacturing companies by contextual analysis of previous studies in the development of different service logics and a case study of the wind turbine industry (use of service agreements). The aim is to answer the following questions: What is changed by the increased service infusion of a manufacturing company and in the relationship between providers and customers? Why are service offerings and service components increasingly becoming an essential part of the business model and innovation process of sophisticated products creating a solutions market with different corporate strategies? How do manufacturing companies decide to organize (‘internally’ or ‘externally’) their solution offerings depending on the impact of several factors? The factors being examined are: differences in market situation, the complexity of goods and services in the wind turbine industry, use of ‘big data’ and analytics, the institutional ‘set up’ (institutions and institutional arrangement) in the company’s service eco-systems and their customer relations.
Edited by David Levi-Faur and Frans van Waarden
This chapter engages with a proliferating series of ‘risks’ in the era of globalization, including international movement of migrants and refugees, climate change and transnational criminal networks. Exploring the theme of securitization and the attendant risks of desecuritization in the specific context of Brazil, it argues that the emergence of new policing strategies and their relation to neoliberal urbanism failed to transform the repressive character of the policing of poor communities. Mass incarceration policies fuelled the emergence and expansion of networked criminal organizations. Combining ethnographic perspectives on what people living in poor communities think about crime and policing with research on police themselves, this analysis explores paradoxes that require us to understand how specific conditions in Brazil influence the impact of broader global trends. In conclusion, a political anthropology that combines perspectives on securitization from above and below can advance a realist consequentialist critique of what securitization does.
Gabriel M. Lentner
This chapter analyzes the practice of SC referrals to the ICC. It will build on the theoretical outline established in the previous chapters to address the legal issues arising from the SC’s practice in relation to referrals. It is not a comprehensive record of the practice of the SC and the ICC. Instead it seeks to address the legal questions that have arisen from such practice insofar as they relate to the particularities of SC referrals and its legal nature. This chapter is consequently confined to the legal issues arising directly out of the SC referrals and will therefore not address more general questions relating to ICL or the internal law of the ICC.
This chapter reports the results of the author’s comprehensive empirical study of secondary market securities class actions in Canada. The chapter examines ten years of data, beginning with the introduction of statutory secondary market liability in 2006 and ending in 2015. In addition to identifying procedural barriers, the authors analyze the types of plaintiff (especially institutional versus retail investors) and defendants (large versus small, but also a concentration in the mining industry), providing a rich account of the Canadian experience with representative shareholder litigation for secondary market misrepresentations.
James J Park
The chapter examines the impact of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act (PSLRA) on securities class actions in light of the severe frauds that occurred in the years after its passage. These years coincided with a period of significant accounting restatements. Securities class actions thus often addressed what were believed to be severe frauds at large public companies. In light of these lawsuits, the PSLRA’s assumption that securities class actions do no more than harass companies with volatile stock prices is no longer valid. This narrative may have been true before the PSLRA, but it has been displaced in part by examples of securities class actions that have provided investors with a remedy for the worst frauds. This success will likely secure the survival of the securities class action for another generation, but also raises new questions about how to ensure that such actions are effective in addressing severe frauds.
Xue Han and Jorge Niosi
Chapter 7 is about the features of the solar PV sector. After studying the evolution of the sector, its geographic agglomeration and the behaviour of the star scientists, some distinguishing characteristics are defined in terms of innovation divergence and abnormal star-scientist performance which differs significantly from the traditional high-tech industries. By comparing it with the semiconductor sector, it is found that the solar PV sector is a special created-demand-driven high-tech sector, particularly one driven by the demand created by government policies. Three characteristics of the special sector are put forward as proof of its distinctiveness. Whether its distinctiveness is significant enough to be a sub-category of the high-tech sector should be studied further.