This chapter proposes the use of the deterritorialization concept derived from the postmodern theories for tourism research. It is argued that the concept of deterritorialization helps to illuminate the changing patterns of territorial identity and morphological landscape. There are three aims of this chapter. Firstly, it draws on postmodern and poststructuralist theory to delineate deterritorialization as an important method in tourism research. Secondly, it applies critical discourse analysis and in-depth interviews to the Westergasfabriek cultural and recreational park in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, to construct a progressive relationship with respect to tourism development. Thirdly, the chapter strives to be a basis for a new form of research methods in the postmodern era, helping to understand and monitor change in the context of destination identity.
C. Michael Hall
The concept of content analysis has evolved over time, and the approach can be used as a research tool in its own right or in combination with other methods. Qualitative and quantitative content analysis are complementary approaches that are increasingly integrated in software based in big data analysis. Content analysis also provides the basis for systematic reviews and meta-analysis.
Elizabeth T. Coberly and Susan L. Slocum
‘Serious leisure’ is used to describe freely chosen recreational activities that have similar characteristics to a career. They follow a defined path progressing from introduction to mastery, and through serious leisure, people find social support, a sense of accomplishment, and engagement. Studying serious leisure has proven challenging, but several research methods have emerged. Some are preferred for identifying and measuring serious leisure, and others for understanding the behaviour and motivations of those who practice a serious leisure pursuit. Using Renaissance festivals as a form of serious leisure, this chapter highlights the most frequently chosen research methods: ethnography, experience sampling modelling (ESM), grounded theory, and the Serious Leisure Inventory and Measure (SLIM). Strengths, weaknesses and outcomes are highlighted.
Viraiyan Teeroovengadum and Robin Nunkoo
Sampling is an essential component of the data collection process, which is in turn a vital stage of the research process as a whole. Undeniably, the quality of the sampling design has a strong impact on the overall quality of the research since it contributes to a large extent to the methodological rigour of the study and to the generalisability of the results. In this chapter, we have reviewed the various considerations in a sampling design. These include: defining the target population; selecting the sampling frame; determining the sampling technique; determining the sample size; and executing the sampling plan.
Analysis of hypothesis and other forms of relationship testing are often performed using secondary (or desk) data sets which are nowadays widely available. These data sets are fed into specifications or models derived from sound theoretical underpinnings, and these are then subjected to regression analysis. This chapter aims at introducing a simple model specification and regression analysis using a tourism data set. The chapter dwells deeper into time series, cross-section and panel data analysis.
The service product is conceptually abstractand highly subjective. Service quality has been likened to an attitude, thereby making it an epiphenomenon. The phenomenological nature of service necessitates innovative qualitative research tools and approaches to complement mainstream methods. The Sensual Quasi-Q-Sort (SQQS) offer new insights into customer perception of service products.
Sheree-Ann Adams, Davina Stanford and Xavier Font
The study of ethical consumer behaviour decision making (CBDM) is difficult to research, due to social desirability response bias (SDRB) when respondents give responses they consider as socially acceptable, rather than realistic responses. This chapter discusses conjoint analysis (CA) as a method which may overcome these challenges
The tourism and hospitality research landscape is constantly evolving and the field is growing in maturity. One of the distinguishing features that dominates this evolution is the proliferation of academic journals. The number of tourism and hospitality journals has increased from less than ten before the 1980s to around 300 in 2017. Within the various articles published in these journals, feature fervent debates on research methodologies and related aspects. Areas of discussion relates to the use of statistical techniques, specific methods related to qualitative, qualitative, and mixed method research and other design aspects of a study. This chapter succinctly summarizes these debates and situates the various contributions that define this handbook within the broader literature in the field.
Ekaterina Sorokina and Youcheng Wang
Tourism research is often critiqued for the ‘stretching’ and ‘contextualizing’ of concepts from other related disciplines and fields. This chapter, therefore, offers theory building and theory evaluation tools that may facilitate the development of knowledge unique to tourism and hospitality. The chapter begins with a review of two dominant paradigms that have greatly influenced all social science research; it then explores methodologies that represent each of the paradigms and provides examples of methods that are relevant to them. Specifically, the chapter provides a snapshot of the methods, and highlights their application in practice, as well as their benefits and disadvantages. Description of the methods is followed by a discussion of two theory building strategies that researchers may apply. The chapter additionally explores an ongoing process of theory building to demonstrate a general process of its development. Lastly, the chapter examines various theory evaluation criteria, and develops a framework that integrates them. Each of the criteria is discussed in detail to facilitate researchers’ understanding of how they may be applied to evaluate an existing theory.
Lisa Ruhanen and Chris Cooper
This chapter provides an overview of the knowledge concept and how knowledge transfer occurs between universities and industry. The inhibitors to successful knowledge transfer in a tourism context are then examined, along with those elements of knowledge transfer that have been successful between researchers and end-users in the tourism industry.