The chapter provides an analysis of the key features of Maoist ideology and of related literature. It considers how Mao’s ultra-left social, cultural and educational ideology influenced the development of education in modern China. This is a fundamentally important historical issue and the chapter considers the considerable literature devoted to it. It shows that the transition in Chinese education from egalitarian ideology to public policy is important in ways other than for educational practice specifically.
Muchu Zhang and Ruth Hayhoe
The chapter provides a detailed historical analysis of the cultural and global influences on the modernization of China’s basic education, higher education and teacher education. It concludes that Chinese education has grown from its cultural roots, and should explain the educational dimensions of the Confucian heritage to a world that has become increasingly interested in its language, culture and society.
Edited by W. J. Morgan, Qing Gu and Fengliang Li
John Chi-Kin Lee and Huan Song
The chapter provides a detailed account of primary education in China. It shows that the Chinese government’s enhanced financial investments and centralized curriculum reforms have improved the quality of provision and access to primary education significantly. However, disparity in terms of resources provision and teacher quality between schools in urban and rural areas remains a persistent cause for concern.
Peggy A. Kong, Xiaoran Yu and Xia Zhao
The chapter considers the role of paid private tutoring or ‘shadow education’ in relation to the provision of the mainstream education system. It raises concerns about variability in the access to and the quality of private tutoring across the country, and calls for policy interventions to address ethical concerns and allegations of corruption among teachers participating in ‘shadow education’. It shows also the tension between individual aspirations in education on the one hand, and social provision on the other.
The chapter provides a detailed description of the latest curriculum change in science, technology and mathematics education in both formal and non-formal settings. It concludes with observations on the need to improve efficiency and coherence in national planning, in the consistency of curriculum standards and in the quality of teachers.
The chapter provides an account of the structure and functional purpose of secondary education, which is to prepare a qualified labour force and educate high-performing students so that they may enter tertiary education. It highlights regional inequalities, especially between rural and urban areas. It concludes that central government recognition of the importance of secondary education will ensure a commitment to addressing issues of equity and quality in a systematic way.
The chapter provides a comprehensive examination of the development of special and inclusive education. It draws upon detailed analyses of the conditions for the development of an inclusive system, and provides convincing evidence that China has made great strides towards providing enhanced educational opportunities for its disabled population through state-led initiatives and policy making. It concludes, however, that multi-level and multi-form barriers remain to be overcome.
Xianan Hu and Fengliang Li
The chapter introduces the structure, governance and finance of the Chinese education system. The chapter explains the ways in which elementary, secondary and higher education in China relates to the politics, economy and culture of society, and the various issues that each phase needs to address if it is to achieve educational fairness and equality.
Ping Zhao, Jun Zhou and Qiong Li
The chapter provides an account of the transition of teacher education from a single-purpose teacher preparation system to the current system where the responsibility of preparing future teachers is shared between normal universities and general-purpose (or comprehensive) colleges and universities. This has improved the qualification profiles of teachers in China. However, quality issues and regional disparities remain to be addressed.