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Catheryn Khoo-Lattimore

All researchers know that there can be difficulties in gaining access to research participants. So why haven’t this group of intelligent people come up with better ways to solve this problem? I thought I had – my incentives would solve this problem – until one examiner at my viva asked about the incentives.

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David Colander

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David Brady, Sharon Oselin and Kim M. Blankenship

The authors investigate the prevalence and correlates of material deprivation among female sex workers (FSWs) in India. Building on literatures on working poverty, the informal economy and sex work, they propose that material deprivation is influenced by household characteristics, human capital and working conditions. Data are drawn from Project Parivartan, which includes large samples in three waves of surveys in Andhra Pradesh, India. The measures of material deprivation include whether the respondent has electricity, running water, bathroom, or telephone in the home, and whether she has missed a meal in the past seven days, not saved money in past six months, is in debt, has been evicted in past five years, and a summary count of these eight indicators. The results reveal that material deprivation is high and widespread among FSWs. A clear majority of FSWs have not saved money, do not have running water or phones in the home, and are in debt. Near majorities do not have electricity in their homes, or have missed a meal in the past seven days. Altogether, the average FSW experiences 4.75 forms of deprivation, and over 90 percent experience at least three forms. For the specific outcomes of material deprivation, the most influential set of factors are arguably working conditions. For the summary count of the eight indicators, however, household characteristics are most influential.

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Luis Maldonado, Joaquin Prieto and Juan Carlos Feres

The chapter examines patterns of in-work poverty in contemporaneous Chilean society. The study presents in-depth information on institutional context and quantitative analysis from the National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey (CASEN) for the period 1990–2013. Cross-national comparisons indicate a significant incidence of working poverty in Chile. The authors associate this pattern with characteristics of the Chilean institutional contexts, mainly significant labor informality, strong labor market regulations and a welfare system based on mean-testing and a conservative male-breadwinner model. Micro-analysis with household survey data for 2013 provides evidence in favor of these associations. Furthermore, longitudinal analysis of the period 1990–2013 indicates that strong welfare retrenchments during the 1990s are associated with increases in in-work poverty, but only when relative measures are used. Results based on absolute poverty indicate a negative trend with stagnation in recent years. On the basis of the findings, the authors suggest implications for policy and research.

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Susan J. Erenrich

This chapter revisits the Mississippi Freedom Summer Project of 1964 through the eyes of the women singer-songwriters who went to the Black Belt. It highlights the gains and losses, the music, the alternative education programs, the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party and the voter registration drive. Erenrich examines leadership without followership as it relates to the Freedom Summer Project and encourages readers to reflect upon the benefits and drawbacks of popular education methodological practice. Fifty years later, this chapter celebrates, ruminates on and engages in discourse about one of the most momentous initiatives ever launched in the United States and the part played by women troubadours during that hot Mississippi Summer of 1964.

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Why process is important in constitutional design

A Constitutional Political Economy Approach

John M. Mbaku

During the last several decades, many African countries have tried to engage in state reconstruction and provide themselves with more effective governing systems. Specifically, the effort has been directed towards securing the types of laws and institutions that can help them effectively manage diversity, enhance peaceful coexistence, protect the rights of citizens, including those of minorities, and provide mechanisms for the creation of the wealth that they need to deal fully with poverty and material deprivation. Unfortunately, most of these countries have failed to understand why the process through which institutional reforms are undertaken—whether the process is top-down and elite-driven or bottom-up, participatory, and inclusive—is important. A participatory process ensures that the outcome are laws and institutions that reflect the ideals, values, and aspirations of each country’s relevant stakeholders.

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WHY AREN'T ECONOMISTS AS IMPORTANT AS GARBAGEMEN?

Essays on the Art and Craft of Economics

David Colander

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Kelly G. Shaver and Alan L. Carsrud

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Malin Brännback and Alan L. Carsrud

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When the words just won’t come

Insights from When Things Go Wrong

Dawn C. Duke

Writing is hard for everyone from time to time. This chapter describes the real stories of newer researchers who have overcome their own writing blocks, providing tips and techniques to inspire researchers who are struggling to write.