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Edited by Hassan Bougrine and Louis-Philippe Rochon

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Ben Spigel

One of the major research areas of ecosystems has been identifying the individual and organisational actors and social and economic factors that are associated with strong entrepreneurial ecosystems. This chapter examines the most commonly cited ecosystem actors and factors in the literature to identify their role ecosystems. Each different element of an ecosystem plays a different role in how they emerge, change, and ultimately affect the high-growth entrepreneurship process.

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Jacob S. Sherkow and Timo Minssen

Whether the EU Trade Secrets Directive sufficiently and appropriately covers cutting-edge complex technologies is of critical interest to policymakers, scientists and commercial developers alike. This chapter focuses on one such technology – adaptive immune receptor repertoire sequencing, or AIRR-seq – and discusses difficult questions concerning what information is and should be protected under the new Directive, and how to best align scientific practices with commercial realities. The authors argue that protecting follow-on information while encouraging the free sharing of AIRR-seq data best accords with the purpose of the Trade Secrets Directive. Lessons from the case of AIRR-seq data are used to shed light on other puzzles concerning the tensions between disclosure and various forms of legal protections, such as the mutual exclusivity of patents and trade secrets, the sharing of clinical trial data and protecting genetic diagnostics.

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Guillermo Perez Algorta

The goal of this chapter is to introduce you to the concept of correlation, and extends to part/partial correlation, big R2 and variance decomposition. Correlation and regression are the most widely used methods in the sciences. They summarize the size and direction of the association between variables. As we work our way manipulating these concepts with applied examples – learning by doing – I also frame the presentation as a mean of providing resources to operationalize research problems. All analyses are conducted using the free statistical program R, and examples are based on real data about the association of child depression and family history of mental health in children and adolescents.

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Michael Johnston

Three decades of effort by the contemporary international anti-corruption movement have so far produced indifferent results at best. The problem is not so much bad ideas as that we do not build strong social and political foundations for the good ideas. Instead of pursuing that more contentious and explicitly political path, reformers have persisted in misunderstanding historical examples, treated corruption as essentially the same everywhere, paid insufficient attention to improved measurement techniques and the risks of collective action problems and clung to seemingly powerful but ultimately empty ideas such as “political will” and petty versus grand corruption distinctions. A stronger movement would start by linking reform to citizens’ own interests and quality of life. That approach to reform would be contentious, long term and often indirect, but it would emulate the historical experiences of societies that have had some success at checking corruption.

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Jens Schovsbo, Timo Minssen and Thomas Riis

The chapter introduces the book, describes its structure and sums up the main conclusions of the individual chapters.

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Evgeny Guglyuvatyy and Natalie P. Stoianoff

Australia has a history of ever changing climate change related initiatives and policies. A range of measures aimed at reducing Australia’s GHG emissions have been on the federal- and state- level agendas for the last two decades. Successive Australian governments have been committed to the introduction of either a carbon tax or an emissions trading scheme (ETS) designed to mitigate climate change. Some of the Australian GHG mitigation policies were successfully implemented, some were introduced and then repealed and some never reached the implementation stage. This article examines the current Australian climate change regime. The Australian climate change initiatives are examined with reference to the forest policy to assess the most significant aspects of the current regime. This article illustrates that the current state of Australian climate policy can only be described as regressive in nature rather than providing progression towards climate change mitigation.

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Amitava Krishna Dutt

Simple models in which economic growth is determined by the growth rate of autonomous demand are developed to examine the effects of government spending, deficits, and debt, and of interest-rate changes in the short and long runs. The distribution of income from production is exogenously given and the rate of growth of government expenditure is also given. In the short run, capacity utilization is a variable, but in the long run, capacity utilization is at its exogenously fixed ‘normal’ level. The effects of changes in the rate of growth of government spending and the interest rate on growth and distributional inequality are examined. In the short run, both fiscal and monetary policy expansion increase the rate of growth, but in the long run, while expansionary fiscal policy increases growth, monetary policy does not do so in long-run equilibrium, but only in terms of average rates of growth.

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Jan Toporowski

Marc Lavoie and Mario Seccareccia have, together with John Smithin, been leading voices in recent discussions on monetary theory. Among Post-Keynesians they have stood out for their willingness to engage with the rapid evolution of policy, in the wake of the financial crisis of 2008, and for their creative approach to the doctrines of Post-Keynesian analysis. This chapter is therefore dedicated to them formally as well as in the sense that it presents a view of financial crisis that, in many respects, complements their original insights. There are few monetary economists today who doubt the idea that the supply of money is endogenous. That the number of such doubters is so reduced is, in good measure, due to the compelling case for endogeneity that has been put forward by the Canadian Post-Keynesians. The banking and financial crisis, however, stands out as something of an anomaly in this approach to monetary theory: if money, or credit, is generated by processes inherent in the functioning of the credit system according to need, then, by definition, a financial crisis cannot arise because of a shortage of credit. Such crises must be because banks refuse to lend as much as is necessary, or because of some disturbances in the price mechanism (a fall in asset prices, or a fall in the rate of profit in relation to the rate of interest).

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Amanda Bingley and Anne Grinyer

This chapter is designed to supply researchers with a foundation for designing, gaining consent for and implementing ethical practice in applied health research, and includes both conceptual and practical dimensions. It provides a brief historical account of the foundations of modern ethics, including the first international guidelines for ethical research practice enshrined in the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki. The four basic principles of ethical conduct developed by Beauchamp and Childress – beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice – are defined and the basic tenets applied to the ethical conduct of contemporary research.