Sonia Ketkar and Zoltán J. Ács
Carina Abrahamson Löfström
This chapter describes what happened over time in five different hierarchical positions after a corporatization reform initiative in the Swedish state-owned mail enterprise. The study shows that the corporatization panacea was translated, as opposed to using other solutions such as instant implementation, decoupling or rejection. It was also evident that the different actors within the organization rationally calculated the appropriateness of the panacea, depending on which options they perceived in their specific contexts. Likewise, the translations changed over time. Based on the findings, the chapter ends with some recommendations for those who intend to introduce a management panacea (top-down or bottom-up) in such a way that it can be adapted as smoothly as possible within the organization.
Zoltán J. Ács, Sameeksha Desai and Leora F. Klapper
Miwako Nitani and Allan Riding
This chapter reports on how a program of intentional post-investment activity on the part of an export credit agency acting as a venture capital (VC) investor encourages internationalization of portfolio firms and adds incremental value, in three respects. First, the investor moderates the incremental risks associated with internationalization that SME owners perceive. Second, the investor provides a broad array of contacts and intelligence by having marshalled the resources of the export credit agency. Finally, the investor provides accreditation with respect to foreign clients and partners, domestic governments and key employees.
Madina Subalova, Haya Al-Dajani and Zografia Bika
Formal credit markets in developing countries are less advanced and therefore, obtaining external funding is difficult for entrepreneurs. As such, microfinance can be a viable alternative solution. This study demonstrates the diverse structure of the microfinance sector and the crucial role of commercial microfinance as a growth trigger in Kazakhstan. By drawing on data from six in-depth interviews with key microfinance industry informants and 155 structured interviews with entrepreneurial users of microfinance lending in Kazakhstan, we found that commercial and outreach microfinance organizations (MFOs) have differing capital structures and evaluation criteria and serve different types of entrepreneurs. Although commercial MFOs distance themselves from poor entrepreneurs, their role in supporting entrepreneurship is important as they provide ongoing funding access and, therefore, tackle entrepreneurs’ working capital dilemmas.
In Greek mythology, Panacea was a goddess of universal remedy. Panacea was said to have an elixir with which she was able to heal. Often management concepts have been viewed as panaceas for organizations because they offer a universal scope of application. However, the question concerning what constitutes a management concept and what distinguishes it from a management idea, innovation, practice, theory or fashion, and what turns these terms into a management panacea is not clear. Thus, the aim of this chapter is a systematic consideration on what constitutes a management concept, and what distinguish a concept from a management idea, innovation, fashion, practice and a theoretical concept and what turns these terms into a management panacea.
Linda Wedlin and Tina Hedmo
A central element in the contemporary landscape of European science is the explicit and elaborate rhetoric centered on excellence and quality. In this chapter, we explore the role of this policy rhetoric, and the general discourse on excellence and quality, in shaping a European governance field for higher education and research. How and why have European systems of assessment and evaluation of quality and excellence developed, and what does that development mean? We explore the role of new systems and actors at the European level by analysing two parallel developments in higher education and in research respectively. We analyse, first, the development of the European Quality Assurance Register, EQAR, which is a register of national accreditation agencies that comply with a set of European standards for quality assurance practice, and second, the establishment of the European Research Council and how they shape notions of excellence at the European level. These examples highlight how transnational systems of governance have developed gradually over time, and how new organizations are beginning to populate the academic landscape and gain authority to establish criteria and set standards for what constitutes quality and excellence in this field. As such, these organizations have a significant impact on the organizational architectonic of the scientific field.
Dynamics and Policy of an Evolving European Research Space
Edited by Linda Wedlin and Maria Nedeva
Since the concept of the European Research Area was launched at the beginning of this century, significant effort has been made to realise the vision of a coherent space for science and research in Europe. But what is such a space, and how is it developing? This timely book analyses the dynamics of change in policy and governance of science and research within Europe over the past decade. It widens the scope of traditional policy analysis by focusing attention on the interaction between policy rationales, new governance mechanisms, and the organisational dynamics of the scientific field. The contributors build a novel analytical framework to understand the European research space as one shifting from a fragmented space of ‘science in Europe’ to one that is labelled ‘European Science’, and the chapters explore dynamics of this shift through the lenses of political science, organisation theory, science policy and related analytical traditions.