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Edited by Lize A.E. Booysen, Regine Bendl and Judith K. Pringle

Equality, diversity and inclusion (EDI) have become features of organizations as a result of both legal and societal advances, as well as neoliberal economic reasoning and considerations. Current research approaches frequently fall short of addressing the challenges faced in EDI research, and this benchmark Handbook brings up to date coverage of research methods in EDI, and advances the development of research in the field.
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Edited by Lize A.E. Booysen, Regine Bendl and Judith K. Pringle

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Edited by Adelina M. Broadbridge and Sandra L. Fielden

This unique Research Handbook covers a wide range of issues that affect the careers of those in diverse groups: age, disability, gender, race, religion, sexuality and transgender, as well as appearance. International experts from a variety of backgrounds contribute chapters in their given fields, reviewing current thinking, practices, initiatives and developments within the field, as well as presenting a wide-ranging and holistic coverage of the topic.
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Adelina M. Broadbridge and Sandra L. Fielden

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Subtle masculinities at work

Positioning Women in Science

Valerie Bevan and Caroline Gatrell

We suggest that the world of science favours ‘hegemonic’ forms of masculinity (Collinson and Hearn 1996; Connell, 2005), which take the form of subtle masculinities in the workplace that are taken for granted and unacknowledged. Subtle masculinities are enacted in three main ways: men support other men rather than women, praising women for their roles in operational or gendered supporting and ‘serving’ roles rather than for their roles as leading scientists; men exclude women from networks and decision making; and women take on roles which are ‘hidden’ such as activities needed to keep the laboratory functioning including preparing for accreditation, checking that equipment is being properly monitored or even that the laboratory is kept tidy.

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Secret careers

Positioning Women in Science

Valerie Bevan and Caroline Gatrell

Chapter 4 shows that women are subject not only to subtle masculinities at work but that these may also extend into the home spheres. Although women showed a strong commitment to their work, they bore the burden of the ‘second shift’ of domestic and care arrangements (Hochschild, 2003). Some women in heterosexual relationships perceived the need to remain invisible at home as a career woman in an effort to avoid conflict with their husbands/partners. While some of our respondents seemed to have developed such strategies unconsciously, others reported proactively balancing a strong career focus with the requirement to appear less work oriented than they actually felt.

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Positioning women in their place

Positioning Women in Science

Valerie Bevan and Caroline Gatrell

Chapter 2 explains the book's use of the metaphor of ‘place’ to illustrate how women in science are excluded from the ‘place’ of scientific ‘action’ (Miller, 1986, p. 75). We argue that women ‘knowing their place’ and the manner in which they ‘internalize such notions psychologically’ contributes to the consistent positioning of women at the margins, and lower levels within science (Harvey, 1993, p. 4).

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M[o]therhood

Positioning Women in Science

Valerie Bevan and Caroline Gatrell

Predominant hegemonic masculinities within science serve to marginalize not only mothers, but also those women with potential to become mothers. This is due to unfair and unsubstantiated assumptions that childbearing reduces women’s commitment to their career, and dulls their ability to undertake creative or groundbreaking research over a lifetime’s work. Women become identified as ‘other’ or more appropriately ‘m[o]ther’ and are subtly marginalized from opportunities to pursue research careers in science. How women balance the multidimensional aspects of motherhood with their career is explored, including commenting on the situation of lone mothers and the experiences of a father who is primary carer for his children.

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Knowing Her Place

Positioning Women in Science

Valerie Bevan and Caroline Gatrell

More women are studying science at university and they consistently outperform men. Yet, still, significantly fewer women than men hold prestigious jobs in science. Why should this occur? What prevents women from achieving as highly as men in science? And why are so few women positioned as ‘creative genius’ research scientists? Drawing upon the views of 47 (female and male) scientists, Bevan and Gatrell explore why women are less likely than men to become eminent in their profession. They observe three mechanisms which perpetuate women’s lowered ‘place’ in science: subtle masculinities (whereby certain forms of masculinity are valued over womanhood); (m)otherhood (in which women’s potential for maternity positions them as ‘other’), and the image of creative genius which is associated with male bodies, excluding women from research roles.
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Introduction: Setting the scene

Positioning Women in Science

Valerie Bevan and Caroline Gatrell

Chapter 1 asks the questions: why should men dominate the senior roles in the science workplace; why do women not achieve as highly as men, despite women being in the majority at the lower grades? The introduction presents a new framework whereby four mechanisms act together to keep women in their subordinate ‘place’: subtle masculinities, whereby masculine cultures in science tend to privilege men and marginalize women; secret careers, whereby subtle masculinities invade heterosexual households so that women conduct their careers in secret, hiding their career aspirations from their partners; the concept of creative genius that is associated with male bodies, meaning that women find it hard to envision themselves (or be envisioned by others) in such a role; and m[o]therhood, in which women’s potential for maternity positions them as different and ‘other’. The introduction also provides information on the research design, ethical consideration and a concise review of global literature on women in science.