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Alina Mungiu-Pippidi

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Structural Reforms for Growth and Cohesion

Lessons and Challenges for CESEE Countries and a Modern Europe

Edited by Ewald Nowotny, Doris Ritzberger-Grünwald and Helene Schuberth

Effective and well-designed structural reforms are key to shaping Europe’s future in the context of the formidable challenges facing the continent today. This book examines the achievements and failures of past structural policies so that future ones can be adapted to address remaining and newly emerging challenges with greater success. Highlighting the social aspects and distributional effects of reforms that go beyond liberalization and deregulation, the book covers key issues facing future Europe, particularly those arising from technological innovation.
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Romain Wacziarg

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Romain Wacziarg

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Romain Wacziarg

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Romain Wacziarg

This compelling Literature Review Article discusses the major literary contributions to the economic analysis of the consequences of trade liberalization on growth, productivity, labor market outcomes and economic inequality. Examining the classical theories that stress gains from trade stemming from comparative advantage, the review also analyses more recent theories of imperfect competition, where any potential gains from trade can stem from competitive effects or the international transmission of knowledge. Empirical contributions provide evidence regarding the explanatory power of these various theories, including work on the effects of trade openness on economic growth, wages, and income inequality, as well as evidence on the effects of trade on firm productivity, entry and exit. This Research Review will be an invaluable research resource for academics, practitioners and those drawn to this fascinating topic.
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Takatoshi Ito, Satoshi Koibuchi, Kiyotaka Sato and Junko Shimizu

Chapter 4 examines a data set based on the questionnaire surveys in 2009 and 2013. Questionnaires were sent to head offices of all Japanese manufacturing firms listed on Japan’s stock exchanges and that reported foreign sales in their consolidated financial statements. Major findings are as follows: while yen invoicing is often chosen for arm’s-length trade, the importer’s currency tends to be used in invoicing in intra-firm trade. In exports to Asian subsidiaries, US dollars are widely used. Firm size does affect the choice of invoice currency because the larger (smaller) the size of a firm, the less (more) likely the yen is to be chosen. Growing and deepening regional production networks in Asia are likely to discourage yen-invoiced transactions, even by Japanese firms. Japanese production subsidiaries that export finished goods to the world tend to choose US dollar-invoiced transactions even for their imports of semi-finished goods from their head offices.

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Takatoshi Ito, Satoshi Koibuchi, Kiyotaka Sato and Junko Shimizu

Chapter 2 surveys recent developments in theoretical and empirical studies on the question of invoice currency choice. By examining aggregate data on invoice currency, published by the authorities, it is shown that the Japanese invoicing currency pattern violates well-known stylized facts: (1) trade between advanced countries tends to be invoiced in the exporter’s currency; (2) trade between advanced and developing countries tends to be invoiced in the advanced country’s currency; and (3) differentiated products tend to be invoiced in the exporter’s currency. More homogeneous products are typically invoiced in an international currency such as the US dollar. Chapter 2 presents two puzzles. First, Japanese exports to advanced countries tend to be invoiced in the importer’s currency; and second, the share of US dollar invoicing is higher than that of yen invoicing in trade with Asia. In order to solve these puzzles, subsequent chapters examine firm-level data obtained through interviews and questionnaire surveys.

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Takatoshi Ito, Satoshi Koibuchi, Kiyotaka Sato and Junko Shimizu

Chapter 5 identifies the types of risks to which a firm is exposed and shows a conceptual diagram of exchange rate risk management strategies. New findings on Japanese firms’ exchange rate risk management approaches are also presented. Through detailed and firm-specific investigation from our firm-level surveys, we find the following characteristics. First, firms with higher sales and greater dependency on foreign markets more actively engage in currency hedging activities, including financial and operational hedging. Second, Japanese firms use both financial and operational hedging complementarily. Third, US dollar invoicing is supported by both financial and operational hedging. Fourth, yen invoicing is a substitute for operational and financial hedging. Fifth, exchange rate pass-through is also a substitute for financial hedging. However, most Japanese exporters cannot change their export price easily even if facing a large fluctuation of exchange rates. In addition, larger sized firms are more likely to increase the degree of pass-through than smaller firms.

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Takatoshi Ito, Satoshi Koibuchi, Kiyotaka Sato and Junko Shimizu

Chapter 3 examines a new data set based on interviews with 23 globally operating Japanese firms. Novel findings here are three-fold. First, Japanese head offices tend to invoice in the importer’s currency in exports to advanced countries so that local subsidiaries can be free from exchange rate risk in their imports from head offices. Second, Japanese firms that export highly differentiated products or that have a dominant share in global markets tend to choose yen invoicing. Third, although Japanese firms have shifted their production bases to Asian countries, exports from these Asian bases tend to be invoiced in US dollars as long as the final destination market is the US. Thus, a smaller share of yen invoicing in Japanese exports even in the 2000s is due to the growing intra-firm trade promoted by the active overseas operations of Japanese electronics firms combined with products having US markets as their final destination.