In recent years, fashion design has been treated as a key element of the cultural and creative industries (CCIs), and the idea of the ‘fashion city’ has emerged as a potential strategy for the revamping of cities. This chapter argues that there is not a singular model of the ‘fashion city’, and that treating fashion simply as a CCI underplays its complexity. It proposes an analytical framework for thinking about fashion’s relationship with cities. The chapter highlights the different trajectories of ‘fashion’s world cities’, specifically Paris, New York, Milan and London, and identifies the existence of two broad tendencies within strategies to develop ‘second-tier cities’ of fashion like Auckland, Toronto and Antwerp. The suggested framework highlights the different positions that fashion plays in urban economies, associated with manufacturing, design and symbolic production and the various forms of creativity associated with different forms of fashion city.
Patrizia Casadei and David Gilbert
Luciana Lazzeretti, Francesco Capone and Niccolò Innocenti
This chapter has a twofold objective. First, it aims to contribute to addressing the fragmentation of the literature on the creative economy, and second, to lay the foundation for an economics of creative industries. Following a bibliometric approach, the authors analyse all publications collected from the ISI Web of Science database, starting from 1998 and ending in 2016. Through the analysis of nearly 1600 publications, they study the evolution of creative economy research (CER). They apply a co-citation analysis developed using social network analysis, thereby exploring the ‘founders’ and ‘disseminators’ of cultural and creative industries (CCIs). Results underline that CCIs are not only the major topic in CER research, but this trend has become stronger in the last few years. In addition, evidence of this work strongly confirms the relevance of CCIs in the contemporary economy. This importance can only be expected to grow in the future. This last result supports the hypothesis concerning the foundation of an economics of creative industries.
Weber considered the Protestant work ethic the foundation of modern capitalism. The chapter extends Weber’s theory by arguing that states with predominantly Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Muslim populations have had a stronger inclination toward underdevelopment and dictatorship than states with Protestant or Jewish majorities. This is the case because their respective religious collectives (monastery, tariqa) promote the hierarchical provision of common goods at the expense of market incentives. The chapter defines the aforementioned three religions as collectivist, in contrast to Protestantism and Judaism, which are defined as individualist. The chapter provides a historical overview that designates the Jewish kibbutz as the collective of democracy and the Eastern Orthodox monastery as the collective of dictatorship. Focusing on collectivist economies, it is revealed that modernization, as a credible commitment to the improved future provision of public goods, occurs when the threat of a radical government is imminent and when the leader has high extraction of rents from the economy. The emergence of radical governments is more likely in collectivist than in individualist economies. Historical illustrations from collectivist economies include the Russian Revolution, the Islamic Revolution in Iran, and the postwar welfare state in Western Europe.
The chapter analyses the effects of religious identity – defined both as personal identification with a religious tradition and evaluation of a central religious institution – on attitudes toward centralization. It explores whether religious citizens are more likely to evaluate their government positively than atheists. It also tests whether adherence to conservative norms of governance lead to a positive evaluation of government. Surveys conducted in Russia and Israel provide a mosaic of three major world religions – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The information gathered provides a study of the role of the Russian Orthodox Church, the Chief Rabbinate in Jerusalem, the Jerusalem Islamic Waqf, and the Greek Orthodox Church of Jerusalem toward the centralized provision of public goods. The study finds strong support for the proposition that religious identity and conservative norms of governance reinforce positive evaluations of government. It also reveals that personal religious identity increases positive attitudes toward local government, while institutional religious identity consolidates positive perceptions of government at both central and local levels.
The Genesis of Democracy and Dictatorship
Ruth Rentschler, Kim Lehman and Ian Fillis
This chapter examines a private entrepreneur and his art museum as a single deep, rich case study. Occasionally, new art museums emerge in small regional cities that contribute to economic and social development. Using the entrepreneurship theory of effectuation, with biographical research methods, interviews, observations and content analysis, the authors provide a lens on how one man’s vision has changed opportunities in a rust-bucket city and state, boosting jobs and tourism and changing the urban environment. They analyse how the complex and paradoxical attractions of a distinctive museum succeeded, which have been little investigated from the perspective of its broader role in stimulating a small regional city’s rise as an emerging creative city. Theoretically, the chapter makes a contribution by applying entrepreneurship theory through an entrepreneurial marketing and effectuation lens, demonstrating how unpredictable products in a new venture process under conditions of uncertainty provided a unique difference and unexpected success in the arts and cultural sector.
The chapter argues that religion matters for the provision of public goods. Three normative foundations of Eastern Orthodox monasticism with strong economic implications are identified: (1) Solidarity; (2) Obedience; and (3) Universal discipline. A public goods game with a three-tier hierarchy is proposed and solved, in which these norms are modeled as treatments. Obedience and universal discipline facilitate the provision of threshold public goods in equilibrium, whereas solidarity does not. Empirical evidence is drawn from public goods experiments run with regional bureaucrats in Tomsk and Novosibirsk, Russia. The introduction of the same three norms as experimental treatments produces different results. The study finds that only universal discipline leads to the provision of threshold public goods, whereas solidarity and obedience do not. Unlike in Protestant societies, in Eastern Orthodox societies free-riding occurs at lower rather than higher hierarchical levels. Successful economic reforms in Eastern Orthodox countries start with the restructuring of the middle- and lower-ranked public sectors. Authoritarian persistence is defined by the commitment of the dictator to overprovide public goods.
Patrick Cohendet and Laurent Simon
In this chapter, the authors analyse Ubisoft’s Montreal ecosystem. They show how the Ubisoft studio is the central actor that orchestrated a unique ecosystem in videogames through the building of a rich ‘middleground’, conceived as a set of intermediary platforms and devices that connect and integrate formal organisations and informal collectives. They argue that the success of the development of the Ubisoft studio and of the dynamism of the city in the domain of videogames is due to the progressive building by the main parties in this field of such a middleground that provides the essential qualities of an ecosystem: generative dynamism, resilience and power of attraction.
Marilena Vecco and Andrej Srakar
This chapter models ‘entrepreneurial regimes’ for cultural entrepreneurship using symbolic data. From the Amadeus database the authors select a sample of firms active in the cultural and creative sectors in Europe to verify to what extent entrepreneurial activities in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries differ from the other old European countries. Analysing several entrepreneurial (firm-level), institutional and macroeconomic distributional variables, and symbolic data clustering algorithms, they transform the dataset into a set of symbolic variables. They extract four main temporally robust clusters and provide their interpretations. Cultural and creative entrepreneurship in CEE countries perform differently compared to other European countries and those countries can be separated into two clusters, based largely on the level of development. Furthermore, Estonia and Slovenia emerge as clear outliers being closer to Western European countries. The authors conclude by reflecting on the findings for future research in the area.
Jessica D. Giusti and Fernando G. Alberti
In this chapter the authors explore the correlation between knowledge brokerage and creativity in a collaborative online innovation network of fashion makers, named Openwear. The fashion industry has recently benefited from co-design and co-creation practices that are accelerated by online platforms of collaboration. The authors selected two knowledge brokerage characteristics: rotating leadership that measures the degree to which, over time, the members in a team vary in how ‘central’ they are to the team’s communications; and rotating contribution that measures the degree to which, over time, actors in a team vary in how much they transmit knowledge versus receive knowledge. Their findings indicate that there is a strong positive correlation between rotating leadership and creativity as well as between rotating contribution and creativity, confirming the general view that creative work requires innovation and breaking known patterns of thought and behaviour through a continuous rotation in brokerage roles and contributions.