The value of work-integrated learning (WIL) in linking theory and practice is well documented, particularly in professional degree programs such as nursing, law, social work and education, where professional practice has long been incorporated into the curriculum. But what of those disciplines not professionally mandated, those not requiring the completion of a practical component before the graduate enters the workplace? How much value is WIL to students when an industry does not explicitly stipulate the inclusion and subsequent nature of WIL activities? This chapter considers the example of the Flinders University tourism degree, which incorporates a variety of compulsory WIL activities, despite the fact that they are not mandated by the tourism industry. The chapter will focus on responses to a questionnaire targeted at graduates, which questioned how useful students found the practical component of their degree to be, and why this was the case. Results indicate that completion of these WIL activities is regarded as a significant and mutually beneficial component of the degree by students, the tourism industry and the university, with a significant subsequent impact on student employability. By examining student perceptions of WIL activities completed as part of this degree, we will consider the ‘value’ of WIL to students, from very early stages in terms of selecting where and what to study, to linking theory and practice during the course of their studies, and finally in reflecting on their subsequent employability.
Chris Fanning, Ceri Macleod and Lynn Vanzo
Dimitrios P. Stergiou and David Airey
Tourism employers are discovering that their workforce requires certain skills that tourism graduates seem to be missing. Identifying industry expectations for tourism graduates is an important step in developing tourism curricula that are responsive to industry needs. Educational institutions are therefore encouraged to incorporate key skills in their curricula. This chapter represents an effort to create an interface between the industry and higher education institutions. It reports on the findings of an interview study conducted with tourism professionals who represent various sectors of the tourism industry in Athens, Greece. The geographic area was chosen for its representation of a number of tourism sectors. The study asked about the industry’s expectations regarding education and skills of tourism graduates entering the workplace. The chapter presents background information from the literature regarding international and Greek experiences, and the methodology employed within the study. Study findings identify specific industry expectations for tourism graduates and suggest that there is a considerable gap between what is taught in tourism education and what is actually needed and required by the industry. These findings replicate and complement those of previous studies in the vocational link of tourism courses in Greece. Taken together, these efforts offer a useful and cross-validated view of the demands tourism graduates are facing, and a mandate to tourism educators to develop tourism curricula in response to them. The chapter suggests that incorporating industry input in the curriculum will allow tourism education to provide an improved service for its graduates and tourism employers.
John C. Crotts
Hospitality and tourism organizations invest a considerable amount of time and resources in recruiting and training sales managers. However, few universities are responding to this marketing demand by providing courses in sales management. The intent of this chapter is to expand educators’ awareness of the importance of this competency area to our field and of how to teach it to our students. It is my hope that sales education will be improved, and that more faculty will be drawn to the field of sales and negotiations, not only for teaching but also for rigorous research.
Johan R. Edelheim
Teaching and research are the foundation of a teacher’s work in both higher education as well as in other modes of education. Teaching seems self-evident – it is even part of the title of the profession – to be a teacher is what we first and foremost started off doing: ‘to teach’ in order for others ‘to learn’. Research is also on the surface easy to understand, but has, on closer inspection, plenty of different meanings. This chapter will investigate the connection between these two concepts. The purpose of the chapter is to illuminate not only how teaching is inextricably linked with research, but how this is emphasized differently in different settings, and in different understandings of ‘teaching’ or ‘research’. The key approach I will take in investigating these matters is by unraveling the etymology and different meanings of the words, and based on these findings show how they shape practice. I will thereafter touch upon the debates surrounding the teaching–research nexus (TRN). The chapter is rounded off with an empirical case showing an institute teaching TH & E in three separate dimensions. The institute is analyzed using the Curriculum Space model and a Curriculum Design TRN model, which will practically illustrate implications for teaching and learning theory; it will challenge earlier ideas about TRN being purely a matter of concern for higher education, and it will suggest new ways of creating inclusive curricula and useful cooperation.
Debbie Cotterell, Charles Arcodia and Jo-Anne Ferreira
An important outcome of a university business education is shaping individuals who are capable of working in and operating businesses that deliver economically profitable, socially responsible and ecologically viable services. In preparing future sustainable tourism workers, universities also need to design curricula that develop the learners’ skills in critical thinking and foreseeing the implications of their actions, along with a sense of ethics and empathy. Research evidence indicates, however, that learners often graduate without these skills. A possible reason for this may be that the design of tourism curricula is based on a weak conceptualization of sustainability (e.g. triple bottom line) as opposed to a strong conceptualization of sustainability. Another possible reason could be that educators are not successfully cultivating the learners’ capabilities to think in more complex ways about sustainability nor do they adequately engage with the ways in which learners make sense of the concept. This chapter discusses the strength of the conceptualizations of sustainability currently underpinning university undergraduate tourism courses. The aim is to outline how learners might acquire knowledge about sustainability and to examine the potential of current pedagogy within Education for Sustainability (EfS) for teaching more complex understandings of sustainability. Novel teaching and learning approaches are discussed including systems thinking, which enables a strong conceptualization of sustainability, and variation theory, which uses the learners’ understandings as the starting point for learning. Future directions for EfS in tourism are also reflected upon. This chapter argues that universities are capable of ensuring that graduates are prepared for working in the sustainable tourism industry if they become more mindful of the ways in which they teach – and the ways in which learners learn – about sustainability.
Philip L. Pearce
Using some of the concepts of tourism study itself – gaze, emotional labor and critical perspectives – this chapter considers the roles, realities and relationships which underpin supervision at the doctoral level in tourism. The analysis is buttressed by key studies from the now broad array of material written about the supervision process. It is argued that the tourism PhD is a distinct entity with a specific array of challenges in its production and management. These challenges include considering the value and the ethics of the work, meeting the suspicious gaze of sometimes hostile outsiders, and managing the task itself, frequently on a limited budget. The skills of the supervisor and the kind of work they do are represented as high-level emotional, aesthetic and performative labor requiring flexibility and sensitivity to deal with the varied kinds of students who seek to earn a doctorate in tourism. Additionally, the analysis of a sample of micro-cases from the direct experience of the author suggest that supervisors in tourism need to be confident about the whole PhD process and enthusiastic about publishing, as well as possessing a substantial but evolving knowledge base and a solid set of technical skills. Increasingly, supervisors need to be aware of how to manage external and institutional pressures, and be organized but flexible in their approach to different student needs. There is a cliché that the student –supervisor relationship is one of the most enduring in a student’s life; you can get married, divorced, even change your gender, but you have your PhD supervisor as a constant shaping your career. Charged with this unique role, supervisors in tourism now have the opportunity to learn from one another as they create supportive and informed environments for quality work at the postgraduate level. The rewards for all parties are arguably the greatest in any teaching and learning context.
Ruth Craggs, Catherine Gorman, Kevin Griffin, Ziene Mottiar, Bernadette Quinn and Theresa Ryan
Cognisant of the importance of student engagement in education being an international concern, this chapter outlines a project to enhance student engagement undertaken at the Dublin Institute of Technology in Ireland. The ‘Students in Action Project’ involved students from a range of programs and modules in the School of Hospitality and Tourism working with the local community and businesses of two tourism destinations: Slane, Co. Meath and Drogheda, Co. Louth in Ireland. The aim was to involve students in an active collaborative learning environment using a destination-based approach to define the parameters of engagement and collaboration and identify ways in which tourism and hospitality within the destination could be enhanced. In contrast to many previous studies on student engagement, the destination-based approach takes a more holistic view by including local industry, industry groups as well as civic and broader community members as key components of the destination. This chapter outlines the motivations underpinning the project, the process involved, and reflects on the benefits, limitations and lessons learnt. Outcomes beyond those intended arose from engaging with stakeholders outside the educational institution. The project has been a steep learning curve for all, and ongoing planning, negotiation and reflection are essential to the process. Fundamentally, all participants – staff, students and destination stakeholders – agreed that the rich outputs justified the effort involved.
Monika Birkle, Eva Holmberg, Marina Karlqvist and Jarmo Ritalahti
Motivation of students is generally seen as the key to good learning but it can also be seen as an outcome of a suitable pedagogical approach chosen by the educators. Motivation and interest are the key elements in inquiry learning, which is the pedagogical approach implemented on Haaga-Helia Porvoo Campus. In inquiry learning learners are expected to actively create knowledge in real life development projects, requiring them to take responsibility for their own learning process. If students are not motivated to actively proceed in the project, teachers have to find tools to enhance the process. Thus a deeper understanding of the factors influencing the motivation of the students at universities of applied sciences is needed. This chapter reports on factors influencing the motivation of students working in an inquiry learning project in order to identify motivational factors that should be considered in designing successful learning situations. Data were collected by asking the students involved in the project to write essays about their motivation in the project, as well as by organizing focus groups with the students when the project finished. The findings indicate that student motivation was mainly influenced by extrinsic motivations such as the other members in the team, the nature of the project, and the feedback from the teachers and the commissioner during the process. Factors related to intrinsic motivations such as need for self-development as well as eagerness to learn were, on the other hand, rarely mentioned in the data analyzed.
Peter Wiltshier and Sarah Rawlinson
Over the past decade the University of Derby has invested in learning, teaching and assessment using experiential or work-based learning. Moreover, we have created a specific tool to identify, implement and review work-based learning, which we call a learning laboratory. Within a university learning laboratory (ULL) stakeholders develop shared teaching and learning projects that meet the core needs of skills and knowledge development for our students. There is a strong correlation between student achievement, partners’ satisfaction with tasks achieved through the work-based learning and prospects for research, consultancy and graduate student recruitment. In this chapter we explore the literature that relates to success in outcomes from work-based learning and examine the practical steps needed to establish learning laboratories. We conclude with a review of accomplishments from learning labs and address possible barriers to be overcome in future. Our approach is social constructivist in nature. We reflect on constructs that we used to explore opportunities to bring higher education learning closer to contemporary practices in work in tourism management. Special attention is paid to the stages of developing learning laboratories and critical evaluation of the process and outcome.
David Airey and Pierre Benckendorff
Over the last few decades changes in funding and access to higher education in many developed countries have resulted in enormous changes that have impacted both directly and indirectly on teaching and learning. A shift in funding from the state to the learner and the escalation of university participation rates have resulted in increased scrutiny from governments, parents, students, employers and other stakeholders. In many countries government scrutiny has been facilitated by changes to regulatory frameworks and quality assurance processes. The combination of external scrutiny and competitive pressure has transformed the standards and quality assurance environment for all aspects of higher education, including tourism education. The aim of this chapter is to explore the background, nature and implications of some of these changes, particularly as they relate to standards and quality assurance for tourism education. The chapter will examine the notion of quality standards and will provide an overview of common approaches to quality assurance frameworks and controls in higher education. The focus is largely on teaching and learning standards in the United Kingdom and Australia, although reference will be made to other standards and countries. Attention is drawn to the performance of the tourism field against some of these standards and frameworks. Issues related to the development, integration and assessment of standards are explored and implications for teaching and learning in tourism are discussed.