The Competitiveness Challenge for Secondary Capitals
Darren Smith, Martin Phillips and Chloe Kinton
This chapter explores the links between rural gentrification and wilderness gentrification, seen also as ‘greentrification’. In so doing it looks at antithetical concepts, such as gentrification and wilderness, the former being associated with areas of humanly constructed built environments that act as housing for people, whilst the latter is associated with spaces showing little or no trace of human habitation. The chapter suggests that assumptions about rural gentrification and wilderness gentrification being somewhat different may need to be reviewed. Gentrification scholars may need to look again at claims that wilderness provides the basis for its own strand of gentrification based on recreational as opposed to residential capital. The chapter also takes the idea of wilderness gentrification outside of North America to England and Wales in the UK where dominant social and cultural representations of wilderness are closely tied to the geographic distribution of National Parks, finding rural gentrification in wilderness areas.
Edited by Kakuya Matsushima and William P. Anderson
This chapter brings into conversation the literature on tourism and gentrification and shows how both processes intersect in several ways. Special attention is given to the extent to which tourism can be interpreted as a gentrifying process that causes different forms of displacement. Although tourism gentrification has especially been noted in cities, the process also affects non-urban spaces, in particular the coastal and rural contexts. In this regard, tourism gentrification can be seen as an example of ‘other geographies of gentrification’. Although some scholars have noted that tourism threatens the right to ‘stay put’ of existing residents, a conceptualisation of how this phenomenon occurs has not been fully considered. Tourism opens up possibilities for real estate investment, introduces differentiated lifestyles and poses several risks for indigenous residents. In other words, tourism plays a crucial role in the production and consumption of space and leads to different forms of displacement. It is for this reason that tourism needs to be seen as a form of gentrification.
Toshimori Otazawa and Yuki Ohira
Interactions between individual agents are fundamental to our society. Local interactions generate external effects such as knowledge spillovers and synergies. From the spatial aspect, face-to-face contacts are regarded as a crucial factor of the existence and the structures of cities. Most of this research, however, focuses on the influence of physical proximity and pays less attention to that of social proximity. As sociologists claim, social distance also plays an important role in determining both quantity and quality of interaction activities. In this chapter, the authors propose a social interaction model in which both intensity of social linkage and synergy effects of face-to-face contacts are incorporated. Furthermore, the authors introduce evolutional dynamics of agents’ locational choices and examine the long-run outcome of interdependence between social interactions and urban spatial structure.
Gentrification in its various forms is about place and more precisely place competition or place appropriation between classes. In this chapter it is argued that the choice of a place of residence is a strategic decision that enables individuals or households to gain locational advantages that are crucial in negotiating and mastering the spatial aspects of everyday life. The term ‘spatial capital’ has been used to conceptualise these locational advantages, revealing them to be an additional form of class-led appropriation of urban resources. The conceptualisation of spatial capital allows for the opportunity to re-read gentrification through the lenses of mobility. In this chapter the gentrification studies literature is read using spatial capital as a guiding thread and the concept of spatial capital is broadened by extending the lens of analysis to the planetary scale.
This chapter makes a strong and very convincing case for slum gentrification. It is defined as a process of capital or material investment in poor and informal built environments, which can be associated with a new (or renewed) interest in the cultures of such places by mainstream urban cultures (in a city or globally), followed by changes in the built environment related to upgrading or renewal projects in those areas and resulting in the partial or total displacement of incumbent populations from the sites of investment. Slum gentrification can occur in the Global South, but also the Global North, it is an example of planetary gentrification. Evidence for slum gentrification across the world is varied and undeniable. It is, however, a contested topic that requires further research, especially longitudinal studies and bold and innovative research that will get policy makers to listen.
This chapter looks at what critical geographers have called ‘false choice urbanism’, the destructive choice that neighbourhoods are offered between ‘gentrification or decline’, a choice that has become ‘common sense’ both in the urban regeneration field and more widely. In critiquing this false choice, the chapter makes clear that we need an alternative to it. It reviews some of the alternatives from the gentrification literature and beyond, including the decommodification of housing, urban commons, etc; but self renovating neighbourhoods are put forward as a better solution that involves collaborative action for common and mutual good. The chapter argues for taking the neighbourhood more seriously as a site for social good and economic opportunity, both empirically right now and normatively for the future. This chapter makes clear that genuine alternatives to gentrification (and decline) are both imaginable and emerging.
Shunsuke Segi and Kiyoshi Kobayashi
In this chapter, the authors consider a road network where a highway and a local road run in parallel and theoretically analyse the second best pricing of the highway toll. They consider how the deterioration of road structures differs between trucks and cars and how the load-bearing capacity of road structures differs between the highway and the local road. Discriminatory toll pricing of two vehicle types results in more trucks being led to the highway from the local road and the total maintenance cost of the entire road network is reduced compared to the case when the toll for cars is not raised. Cutting the toll for trucks and raising the toll for cars can maintain the toll revenue of the operator and thus is effective when the operator needs to cover its operational cost from the toll revenue.