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John A.P. Chandler

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John A.P. Chandler

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Petroleum Resource Management

How Governments Manage Their Offshore Petroleum Resources

John A.P. Chandler

This thought-provoking book examines how countries manage their offshore petroleum resources by comparing the different approaches to licensing and regulation taken by Australia, Norway and the UK. It is based on extensive research into their policies and management practices, including interviews with government regulators and companies. These countries all face similar challenges as their offshore petroleum basins mature which means smaller discoveries, marginal production and ageing infrastructure. John Chandler analyses how their petroleum policy, systems of regulation, and regulators developed up to the present, and how they are responding to these challenges, as well as how they deal with exploration, development, infrastructure sharing and production.
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International Agricultural Law and Policy

A Rights-Based Approach to Food Security

Hope Johnson

Globalised agriculture and food systems are at the crux of significant issues facing humanity from the rise in diet-related diseases to water pollution and biodiversity loss. Yet, legal scholarship on the regulation of agriculture and food is only now emerging. This timely book provides the first systematic analysis of the public international rules influencing agriculture. Each chapter considers the regulatory instruments that intersect with different components of agricultural systems from land tenure and soils through to agricultural in-puts and trade.
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John A.P. Chandler

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Anna Södersten

This book addresses the contentious debate surrounding the future of the European Atomic Energy Community Treaty (Euratom), one of the European Union’s founding treaties. Arguing that it has remained at a ‘crossroads’ since its adoption in 1957, Anna Södersten explores the issue of whether the treaty should be kept separate from the EU, or be brought within its framework.
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Summary of the main findings

The Subsidisation of Heavy Polluters under Emissions Trading Schemes

Elena de Lemos Pinto Aydos

Chapter 7 presents a summarised version of the key findings of this book. While the EU ETS, the AUS CPM and the NZ ETS have all subsidised emissions-intensive industries, the consequences of this regulatory model have, in general, escaped the scrutiny of legal scholars. The book closes with an important message, that despite formally participating in ETSs, many heavy polluters are not yet paying their fair share of the carbon price. Keywords: Emissions Trading – EU ETS – Free Allocation – World Trade Organization –Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures

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Reconsidering the eligibility thresholds for the free allocation of permits

The Subsidisation of Heavy Polluters under Emissions Trading Schemes

Elena de Lemos Pinto Aydos

Chapter 4 focuses on carbon leakage in practice and real life examples of the use of free allocation as an industry assistance measure. It demonstrates that jurisdictions linking independent ETSs would benefit from harmonising the free allocation methodologies in order to minimise the competitiveness concerns and to reduce the trade distortions and other impacts inherent to the free allocation system. It proposes a review of the general thresholds in order to assess the exposures to carbon leakage so as to improve the effectiveness and fairness of the ETSs. The two final key recommendations are the removal of the sole trade-exposure factor from the quantitative assessment in the EU ETS and increasing the stringency of all the thresholds to determine emissions-intensity. Keywords: carbon leakage – free allocation – emissions intensity – trade exposure – linking – competitiveness

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Real world emissions trading schemes: challenges and lessons learnt

The Subsidisation of Heavy Polluters under Emissions Trading Schemes

Elena de Lemos Pinto Aydos

Chapter 3 introduces the three case studies, that is, the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZ ETS) and the Australian Carbon Pricing Mechanism (AUS CPM). The chapter provides the reader with a basic understanding of the key elements of each ETS, such as the coverages, emissions caps, governance regimes and links with other schemes. It also reflects on the main achievements and challenges particular to each scheme. For example, the significant problems with surplus emissions permits experienced by the EU ETS, the process that led to the repeal of the CPM in Australia and the distinctiveness of the NZ ETS, which has been resilient and stable, despite significant changes in the country’s approach towards international climate change negotiations. Keywords: European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) – New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZ ETS) – Australian Carbon Pricing Mechanism (AUS CPM)

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Paying the Carbon Price

The Subsidisation of Heavy Polluters under Emissions Trading Schemes

Elena de Lemos Pinto Aydos

Paying the Carbon Price analyses the practice of freely allocating permits in Emissions Trading Schemes (ETSs) and demonstrates how many heavy polluters participating in ETSs are not yet paying the full price of carbon. This innovative book provides a framework to assist policymakers in the design of transitional assistance measures that are both legally robust and will support the effectiveness of the ETSs whilst limiting negative impacts on international trade.