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Edited by David Levi-Faur and Frans van Waarden

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Edited by David Levi-Faur and Frans van Waarden

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Family Demography in Asia

A Comparative Analysis of Fertility Preferences

Edited by Stuart Gietel-Basten, John Casterline and Minja K. Choe

The demographic future of Asia is a global issue. As the biggest driver of population growth, an understanding of patterns and trends in fertility throughout Asia is critical to understand our shared demographic future. This is the first book to comprehensively and systematically analyse fertility across the continent through the perspective of individuals themselves rather than as a consequence of top-down government policies.
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Edited by David Levi-Faur and Frans van Waarden

This book looks at democratic empowerment via institutional designs that extend the political rights of European citizens. It focuses on three themes: first, the positive and negative effects of the European Union institutional design on the political rights of its citizens; second, challenges for democratic regimes across the world in the 21st century in the context of regionalism and globalization; third, the constraints of neoliberalism and capitalist markets on the ability of citizens to effectively achieve their political rights within the Union.
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Edited by David Levi-Faur and Frans van Waarden

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Phil Parvin

This chapter discusses the emerging theories of social justice, broadly starting with Rawls’ key text A Theory of Justice. The author argues that Rawls’ book, more than any other, and despite a mass of philosophical work from the period of the ancient Greeks onwards, which discussed the nature of justice, set the template for analytic normative theorising about social justice within the ‘Western’ world. The developing critiques of Rawls’ work, particularly from the theories of Nussbaum, Fraser, Young and others are reviewed and, using two ‘real-life’ vignettes, contemporary discussion of the dimensions of redistribution, resources, and inequality is analysed.

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Viviene Taylor

This chapter reviews the meaning of social justice in the context of the post-apartheid struggle for peace, reconciliation, transformation and development in South Africa. It offers a view on how social justice can be pursued in South Africa, given its historical development and present struggles. It is clear that South Africa’s fight for freedom recognised that democratic change was necessary for improvement in the overall quality of life for all in the country, especially the historically disenfranchised majority. Political and social struggles prior to 1994 mobilised for a process of wide-scale transformation of state institutions, policies and legislation to dismantle the apartheid state and create change that would embed constitutional democracy and social justice. Two decades after coming to power, the democratically elected governments still face the need to address the shadow of apartheid’s racial history and monopoly capitalism, which continue to influence policy outcomes for the majority of citizens.

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W. Thomas Duncanson

The context for discussion of social justice in the United States is its remarkable national wealth, equating to a comparatively generous average individual income across the country. From this perspective, the accusation that the United States is a socially unjust nation, unwilling or unable seriously to address the fair expectations of its people is surprising but true. If, as the author argues, a fundamental material generosity and permissive inclusiveness should come easily to any people, it should be the Americans; sadly, it does not. He supports this assertion with a detailed analysis of key factors such as poverty, inequality, and difference, reminding us that access to life chances are highly racialized. Americans are trapped by myths, for example about their own and their country’s generosity. These inequalities, unsolved matters of racial and sexual justice, the unfinished question of violence, mean that the United States enters the future with an enormous agenda of social justice issues.

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Philip Mendes

This chapter discusses the nature of social justice in Australia through the lens of a detailed investigation into the treatment of aboriginal/Indigenous people and, in particular, their children. In the twentieth century, many of these children were ‘stolen’ by the white-dominated Australian federal and state governments and given to settlers to adopt and bring up in western traditions. A significant number of the children were abused. The author reviews the campaigns of the past 30 years that have sought to stop this practice, return the children to their natural families and assert their traditional identities in the context of wider struggles, particularly over land rights and economic exploitation. The chapter examines the failure of Australian governments to address policy recommendations, and dissects the varied causes of the rapid rise in the number of Indigenous children entering the out-of-home care system.

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Jonathan Bradshaw

The focus of this chapter is distributional justice for children. Although it starts with some observations on the concept of social justice applied to children, it will mainly be concerned with how one might explore social justice for children in empirical study. The approach is comparative, drawing mainly on data from European Union countries. The chapter ends by posing a question that has not yet been resolved. What is the appropriate balance between the market and the state in supporting children out of poverty? What is the right balance between the family, the market and the state in seeking social justice for children? This is an important issue at a time when it appears that the combination of neo-liberal policies and austerity which have been pursued more or less aggressively in many so-called ‘developed’ countries have resulted in a situation where the numbers of children in poverty have reached record levels in living memory.