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Claire Valentin

This chapter highlights how competing ways of thinking about sustainability are reflected in organizational and IHRD practices. The chapter draws on IHRD and IHRM literature which has a critical focus on sustainability and learning. It examines the construct of green HRD, and draws out its key features. The chapter presents a conceptual framework, which identifies three orientations to green IHRD. These three orientations are examined, exploring how they could be reflected in different aspects of the practice of green IHRD, and provide pointers to developing green IHRD processes. The implications for IHRD research and practice are explored, and the chapter argues for a more critical approach to IHRD and sustainability, with an emphasis on innovative approaches to organizational learning.

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Edited by Thomas Garavan, Alma McCarthy and Ronan Carbery

This Handbook draws on a global team of distinguished Human Resource Development and IHRD scholars to provide research and practice insights on a range of contemporary IHRD issues and challenges. The Handbook reviews a number of critical contextual dimensions that: shape the IHRD goals that organisations pursue; impact the IHRD systems, policies and practices that are implemented; and influence the types of IHRD research questions that are investigated. The Handbook examines the processes or actions taken by organisations to globalise IHRD practices and discusses important people development practices that come within the scope of IHRD.
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Gary N. McLean and Sewon Kim

The increase in global teamwork is a significant theme in contemporary business environments. Organizations are expanding their operations globally (Europe, Asia, North America, Latin America, the Middle East, or Africa) for easier access to world markets and resources, while developing international visibility, product localization, maximizing firm value to shareholders, improving support for global customers, and other potential advantages. This chapter examines the research and practices in global team management and development. The chapter offers a conceptual framework of, and practical guidelines for, global teams, integrating relevant literature on team development, cross-cultural management, organization development, and international human resources. The chapter discusses practice implications for IHRD professionals and sets out current and future research directions.

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Michelle Hammond, Deirdre O’Shea and Jill Pearson

This chapter explores the diverse perspectives on global careers and their implications for international human resource development. The chapter starts by discussing what is meant by global careers and how careers have changed within the global economy and the implications of globalisation and traditional versus contemporary career concepts such as boundaryless and protean careers are examined. The chapter examines how organisations and careerists might manage the challenges and opportunities around global work experiences. Finally, the chapter discusses the opportunities for further research on global careers within the field of IHRD, especially in the areas of systematic categorisation that captures the diversity of global work experiences and examinations of the role of context and time in global careers.

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Andrew Bratton, Thomas Garavan, Norma D’Annunzio-Green and Kirsteen Grant

The chapter examines the important role of global talent development in MNCs and other international organizations. This chapter commences by defining talent development and international talent development and highlights issues concerning different approaches to talent development. . Second, options for organizing and managing talent development in an IHRD context are set out. Third, the main types of programs that organizations utilize to develop talent in an IHRD context are discussed and differences in talent development in international organizations across different regions are reviewed. Finally, the chapter concludes by proposing future areas of research on talent development in international organizations, as well as recommendations for IHRD practice.

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Nicholas Clarke

This chapter explores international leader development as a significant area of inquiry and practice within the emerging field of international human resource development. The focus is specifically on leader as opposed to leadership development within an international context, reflecting the major body of work in this area to date, which has looked at the concept of global leaders and their development. The chapter takes a critical approach to the literature on global leader development and highlights the relatively poor data that exists regarding the impact of global leader development. It raises major questions that need to be addressed to further our understanding in this area if both theory and practice are to be enhanced. Chief among these include the need to better align both current theory and practice and the problems associated with global competence-based frameworks that reflect fairly ethnocentric notions of how leaders should be developed. The chapter argues that the literature should explore ideas that cross-cultural differences in leadership have implications for how leader development might be construed and even practised in differing cultural contexts. Drawing upon the popular model of leader development as comprising the three key components of assessment, challenge and support, the chapter identifies cultural limitations associated with three traditional methods used in leader development (1) three hundred and sixty degree feedback, (2) developmental job challenge and (3) self-directed learning. The chapter concludes with recommendations on directions for future research in the area of international leader development.

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Meera Alagaraja

This chapter reviews the intersections of lean and international human resource development (IHRD) literature. The lean literature focuses on process improvement at the level of the organization, streamlining as well as aligning the overall vision and mission with individual departments, teams and employees. HRD emphasizes the central role of people in facilitating the formulation as well as implementation of lean strategies in organizations. Through the integration of these very different literatures, the chapter identifies factors that facilitate and or hinder the adoption, implementation and sustainability of lean implementation in organizations as well as explicate the relevance of these factors for enhancing the strategic value of IHRD. Organizations can identify critical factors that facilitate lean implementation and therefore increase opportunities for experiencing success. In addition, organizations can also recognize barriers that are hindering lean implementation. Finally, the chapter presents implications for IHRD theory, research and practice.

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Alexandre Ardichvili

In today’s global business environment, cross-border and cross-cultural knowledge management is one of the key drivers of organizational competitiveness. This chapter explores different roles IHRD plays in cross-border and cross-cultural knowledge management processes. The chapter starts with a discussion of how organizations develop and transfer their knowledge assets, and how knowledge shared is organized and facilitated. Next, the chapter explores how organizational knowledge is created, transferred, and shared in international and cross-cultural contexts. Finally, the challenges and opportunities for IHRD presented by the complex task of managing knowledge in global and international settings are set out.

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Hanna Moon and Wendy E.A. Ruona

Organizations need to be more agile than ever before to respond quickly to the uncertainties, ambiguities, and changes stimulated by a complex global environment. In this context, organizations are deeply challenged to develop an inimitable strategy that extends beyond national boundaries and that will deliver value to new, and often different, customers. This chapter explores the emerging concept of strategic learning so that IHRD professionals can be better positioned to consciously invest in this critical capability. The chapter explains what strategic learning capability is; how it plays in the global context; and why it is important for IHRD. A model that outlines the characteristics critical to the strategic learning process are set out and the model is used to explore specific interventions that can strengthen an organization’s capacity to ‘learn through’ strategy. Finally, challenges, opportunities, and implications related to strategic learning capability for IHRD are discussed.

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Elisabeth E. Bennett and Rochell R. McWhorter

Virtual human resource development (VHRD) is a new area of inquiry and it is integral to international trade and transnational organizations. Increasingly, VHRD enables international HRD (IHRD) as globalization advances, although the extent to which it does depends upon technology access and navigating cross-cultural issues. This chapter discusses the intersection of VHRD with IHRD, introduces technology development from an IHRD perspective, and provides implications for practice and research. It offers perspective on various levels of culture associated with different types of HRD. Interwoven through this chapter are issues of knowledge, culture, learning, technical capacity, and the goals and boundaries of IHRD. It discusses new applications of technology, including artificial intelligence and the trend towards the Internet of Things. These movements continue to transform both the public sphere and workplace and, thus, alter strategies for IHRD. Implications include moving organizations from enterprise systems to ecosystems, promoting learning agility, and addressing ethical and practical challenges in technology access and sustainability.