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Edited by Ronald J. Burke and Astrid M. Richardsen
Hannes Zacher and Megan J. Bissing-Olson
In this chapter, we first explain what is meant by between-person variability (or interindividual differences) and within-person variability (or intraindividual variability and change) in employee pro-environmental behaviour. Second, we describe two quantitative daily diary studies that examined both between-person and within-person variability in employee pro-environmental behaviour. Third, we present a conceptual framework for investigating person- and context-related predictors of stable between-person differences and dynamic within-person variability in employee pro-environmental behaviour. Fourth, we discuss different research designs and analytical strategies to investigate between- and within-person variability in employee pro-environmental behaviour. We conclude by discussing implications for organisational practice.
Aharon Tziner and Edna Rabenu
Having reviewed the various angles of performance appraisal (PA) formats and their potential, as well as trends in the marketplace towards alternatives to classical PA, we now turn to a wider perspective and theoretically anchored approach to the whole notion of performance appraisal systems (PASs) and performance management (PM) techniques that brazenly broadens the scope of discussion concerning the future of performance evaluation in general. The discussion is based on Angelo DeNisi and Caitlin E. Smith’s (2016) ground-breaking treatise, ‘Performance appraisal, performance management, and firm-level performance: A review, a proposed model, and new directions for future research’ (2014). The central question addressed in their paper is: While it is intuitively obvious that aggregates of increased individual performance should translate into improved organizational performance (and teams would appear to present a microcosm of that notion), what, nevertheless, is the real relationship between individual performance improvements that are outcomes of performance appraisals (and other performance management techniques) and what DeNisi and Smith (2014) call firm-level performance? In the paper, the authors argue that the direct links are tenuous and, consequently, they build up a thoroughly substantiated case for a completely new model of performance evaluation that expands the discussion on performance appraisal (rating formats) from the relatively narrow confines of traditional performance appraisal to the wider domain of performance management. The reader is referred to the complete paper for an in-depth coverage. Based on DeNisi and Smith’s admirable odyssey through the literature in search of the genie that links performance appraisal, performance management, and firm-level performance, we are satisfied to recount the key themes in the paper that, inter alia, demonstrate where research can and should be heading.
A great deal of research has addressed the role of immediate manager in the achievement of environmental sustainability by putting the stress more often than not on human resource management practices. However, much less is known about the underlying moral obligations of immediate managers to support their subordinates in developing their environmental concern. In this chapter, we propose describing, through an ethic of care, how the immediate manage may help subordinates to behave eco-friendly.
Aharon Tziner and Edna Rabenu
Evaluation of workers’ performance within an organization can be considered the product of three basic systems, which influence its construction, utilization, and consolidation, namely: (1) the appraisal formats, (2) the encounter between the rater and the ratee, and (3) the organizational system and organizational cultural context. The specific processes that occur within each of these systems contribute intrinsically to the ultimate quality and empirical value of the appraisal process. This chapter reviews especially the first system in some detail, namely (1) the processes involved in the construction and operation of a PA system, based on the classic PA measurement formats, and (2) what performance appraisal system (PAS) actually measures. The review includes issues such as adjusting the appraisal system to specific applications and supervisors’ abilities to draw appropriate conclusions from the PA process. Various problems encountered in the process of appraisal are described, as are some suggested solutions. Additionally, we explore types of scales, formats, and systems of performance appraisal, with specific reference to approaches in formulating the criteria for performance appraisal. A major section of this chapter is devoted to an in-depth, critical comparison of two of the most commonly used methods of performance appraisal, namely, behaviorally based rating formats and graphic rating scales. Particular reference is made to their influence on a variety of outcomes that have significance for future employee performance on the job. These include rater/ratee attitudes to PA, rater/ratee relationships, feedback and goal setting, and consequent motivation, goal acceptance and job performance. The predefined objectives of the PAS determine its way of operation and also determine the criteria for PAS to be used, namely, the important role of components identified throughout the job analysis and processed accordingly into the dimensions that describe the behavior and desired results relevant to the job. The criteria are used as dimensions that measure the degree of success of the worker in his or her job. The evaluation criteria relate to the two basic types of performance discussed in Chapter 1, namely, the task performance of particular employees (declarative facets) and their relevant behaviors on the job (contextual facets). Concurrently, performance in relation to the job includes behaviors that contribute to broader organizational goals, for instance voluntary activities (not included in the formal job description) such as facilitating interpersonal communication and assisting conflict reduction, activities that lead to smooth teamwork (Borman and Motowidlo, 1993). The section on performance in relation to the job also includes reference to counterproductive behaviors such as taking office supplies for private use, exaggerating reports of hours worked, and offensive gossip about managers and colleagues.
Regina Hahn and Felix Ostertag
The exploration of discretionary pro-environmental behaviour in companies is at the core of environmental sustainability. This chapter gives an overview of existing concepts, models, and research streams relevant for explaining voluntary pro-environmental behaviour of employees (VPBE). It illustrates their theoretical grounding, explains connections between different models and determinants, and presents the current status of research on different sources of VPBE. Based on this exploration, as well as a discussion of the specific characteristics of VPBE, we develop a comprehensive model of VPBE that integrates existing concepts, and deduce behavioural interventions in the form of measures and instruments to enhance VPBE.
Aharon Tziner and Edna Rabenu
Section I - An Historical Retrospective: Having reviewed the different approaches to performance appraisal systems PASs, it would seem a relatively simple matter to establish which of the various formats actually best succeeds to achieve the goals of performance appraisal to the highest degree. In reality, over a period of many years, researchers attempted to describe the process that leads to effective performance evaluation but arrived at no conclusive finding. In order to gain a greater appreciation and understanding of the lack of finality regarding this question, this chapter indicates that several phases in the historical development of performance appraisal can be identified. In each phase, those who developed the formats and sought out their effectiveness, tended to highlight one major aspect or focus pertaining to the efficacy of the formats. These foci, in turn, reflected changing perspectives and priorities among researchers and practitioners regarding the purposes and strengths of the performance appraisal formats and the possibilities of enhancing the formats so that they demonstrate ever-enhanced reliability, validity and accuracy. Notably, the historical review also refers to the contemporary changing factors in the business world that have impinged on the viability of traditional performance appraisal techniques, a subject that is discussed in more detail in later chapters.: Section II - The Efficacy of Appraisal Formats Building on the historical account of the search for psychometric soundness of appraisal formats and our understanding of the various formats discussed in Chapter 3, we now delve into a more systematic and critical review of the effectiveness of the various performance appraisal formats reviewed, based on several assumptions: (1) if management has clarity of goals for the PAS, and the vision and concern to create the necessary organizational culture and strategy, then the PAS can reach maximal levels of reliability, validity and accuracy, (2) the type of performance appraisal format employed has positive (albeit indirect) effects on performance, and (3) despite arguments decrying the viability of PAS, the systems will be employed for many years to come – especially if all the stages in their preparation and execution in the workplace are fulfilled in the spirit and professional manner to be described in the following chapters.Section III - Methodological improvements of the appraisal formats: Before closing this chapter, we pay attention to the aforementioned controversy surrounding the question of the rating accuracy of rating scales. Clearly, along with other aspects of methods of improving PAS, accuracy – almost by definition (and although considered passé) – is still critically important to any performance appraisal procedure. Indeed, sophisticated rating formats are supposed to enhance accuracy of performance ratings: these formats are designed so that they impose structure on raters’ observations and appraisal processes, thus to bypass inherent, innate cognitive handicaps of raters, which may well account for the rating inaccuracies. These concluding notes to this chapter incorporate both traditional arguments against the validity of performance appraisal formats based on ‘poor accuracy’ and fresh data to support the notion of continued research on rating formats that incorporate alternative and extended rating properties, ‘that have provided a much clearer picture regarding the value of rating formats’ (Bartram, 2007).
Terry Tudor and Cleber Dutra
Pro-environmental behaviour (PEB) within organisations is governed by a number of factors, related to the staff (e.g. attitudes and beliefs), as well as the organisation (e.g. bureaucracy, leadership and culture). Traditionally, approaches to effecting behaviour change have been set within a psycho-sociological context. However, given the complexity and interrelated nature of the factors, this chapter argues for the need to employ transition processes that are primarily represented by the multi-level perspective (MLP) and social practices’ (SPs) affiliates. These multifaceted theoretical developments offer improved possibilities to best manage the change processes. They could also contribute to an improved understanding of how to change employees’ PEB both at their workplace and during their external societal roles/activities. Recommendations for practitioners are also suggested.
Simon Lockrey, Linda Brennan, Karli Verghese, Warren Staples and Wayne Binney
Strategic planning and implementation issues are evident when organisations seek environmental sustainability outcomes. Critically, this can involve issues between employees and their behaviour, and their connection to, and within, higher-level social structures. Structuration theory is used to determine if employees have the power to change contexts for actions supporting the environment, or if they capitulate in the face of structural resistance. Further, we elaborate on the resources that employees may draw upon and rules that guide them, both of which are used to reproduce or change social structures that enable sustainable practice. We test a structuration framework using two empirical cases examining organisational strategy, thus applying a new lens to develop a unique understanding of these contexts. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion on how the model we use can inform new research and practice to identify and navigate structural barriers to implement environmental sustainability within organisations.
Angela Ruepert and Linda Steg
Organisations are increasingly recognising that environmental problems will reduce if their employees act more pro-environmentally. However, pro-environmental behaviour (at home or at work) generally implies a conflict between immediate gratifications or financial gains and long-term benefits for the environment. Yet, despite this, people are motivated to act pro-environmentally when they are focused on benefiting the environment. In this chapter, we discuss a conceptual framework to understand, predict and promote pro-environmental behaviour at work. We identify two main factors affecting pro-environmental actions: the values people endorse and contextual factors. We propose that people are more likely to act pro-environmentally at work when they strongly endorse biospheric values. Biospheric values influence behaviour by strengthening the environmental self-identity and personal norms to act pro-environmentally at work. Yet, contextual factors can prevent (or promote) people acting upon their personal norms. Contextual factors may not only inhibit or enable pro-environmental behaviour at work, but they can also affect the extent to which people focus on benefiting the environment, which affects pro-environmental actions. People are more likely to act pro-environmentally when the context makes them focus on the environment, even more so when people have relatively weak biospheric values.