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Klaus Vieweg and James A.R. Nafziger
James Skinner, Terry Engelberg and Stephen Moston
This chapter examines societal trends occurring during the mid-nineteenth century that saw an increase in doping practice and drug-related deaths in sport. During this period, the policy developments of governments and sport organizations did not lead to reductions in doping in sport. This period is underpinned by the rationales for anti-doping policy being out of touch with the nature of contemporary sport as well as the ambiguity that surrounds the focus of anti-doping policies. The chapter then provides a background to the establishment of the World Anti-Doping Agency and segments policy developments into two main sections. The first section reviews the successes in policy development and the second section the tensions in policy development. The chapter concludes by detailing how policy developments have created an era of employment surveillance techniques that ultimately shape and regulate the workplace to normalize the conduct and decisions of athletes to achieve the desirable doping policy objectives.
Terry Engelberg and Stephen Moston
Sexual harassment is a form of sex discrimination that affects men and women in several organizational contexts, including sport. Research suggests that inappropriate sexualized and sexist attitudes and behavior are often condoned as “part of sport.” This chapter examines the origins of sexual harassment as a social issue, noting the difficulties in defining the issue and assessing its incidence. Research indicates that sexual harassment (mainly of female athletes) is prevalent in sport, although women in other spheres of sport, such as sport science students or sport journalists experience harassment also. Although these behaviors are considered sexual harassment, women in sport appear to be more accepting of such behaviors than women in other work or education contexts. Regrettably, inquiry into sexual harassment has oftentimes been dismissed as an irrelevance that interferes with the core business of “winning.” This position is ultimately damaging to the industry, creating an environment that undermines employment relations.
Greg Maynes, Heather Mitchell, Peter Schuwalow and Mark Stewart
This study uses statistical techniques to compare the competitiveness of different sports with the number of opportunities there are to become a professional sportsman or sportswoman. It uses these results to rank various team and individual sports in terms of the prospects they offer players or competitors to earn a living from their sport. Comparisons are made between the team sports of Australian football, baseball, cricket, football (soccer), rugby league and rugby union and the individual sports of athletics (track and field), golf and tennis.
Major League Baseball (‘MLB’) in the United States is the world’s premier professional baseball league, both in terms of the standard of competition and salary.Players earn from the minimum wage of US$500,000, up to hundreds of millions of dollars. The question this chapter explores is how labor is regulated in MLB. To answer this question, the labor controls that compose MLB’s internal system of labor regulation will be explored, along with the regulatory actors that operate in this system. The interaction between MLB’s internal system of regulation with external regulation by government and courts is also examined. This regulatory system will be analyzed in the context of regulatory theory and labor law literature.
John Solow and Peter von Allmen
In this chapter we discuss the idiosyncratic nature of labor contracts in North American professional baseball, football, ice hockey, and basketball and how the long-term employment relationships that result from such contracts impact performance incentives, job security, and risk allocation. These labor markets differ greatly from sport to sport and involve multiple levels of bargaining. The outcome of the bargain between the league and the players’ union determines the contract space within which individual players can bargain with individual teams and may include such things as minimum and maximum salary levels, salary guarantees, and allowable contract length. Accordingly, it is difficult to draw overarching conclusions. We sketch a general theoretical framework in which to consider the issues, address the roles played by players, teams, player associations, and leagues, and then survey some of the empirical literature pertaining to performance, pay, and risk allocation.