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Edited by Nikolas Thomopoulos, Mosche Givoni and Piet Rietveld

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Nikolas Thomopoulos, Moshe Givoni and Piet Rietveld

‘Smart’ in policy terms refers largely to the increasing use and various ways of ICT to meet various objectives, ranging from social cohesion to economic growth and environmental sustainability. Yet it is debatable what smart is in policy terms and even when there is consensus that it is wise to act in a certain way, the outcome might prove otherwise. Similarly, smart policy in terms of promoting the use of ICT in the transport sector includes certain threats while at the same time offering valuable opportunities. Consequently, this concluding chapter aims to summarize the main findings of previous chapters in a table and to draw useful conclusions to foster collaboration between previously distant disciplines. One of the main conclusions of this book is that ICT in particular, and technology in general, form important policy tools to advance sustainable transport, amongst other objectives. However, such policy tools should not be seen as fixes to the sustainable problem but as part of an overall solution minimizing risks. It is only such approaches that can build on synergies and avoid contradictions in the rapidly evolving field of ICT for transport to advance sustainable transport.

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Yannis Tyrinopoulos, Anna Kortsari and Maria Chatziathanasiou

The chapter aims to serve the overall goals of the book by providing a sound collection of successful ICT implementations, barriers that prohibit the wider ICT deployment, as well as recommendations to tackle these barriers and to accelerate the take-up of advanced technologies in Europe. In this respect, threats and opportunities are directly addressed. The chapter also includes useful background information about European transport policy, with clear emphasis on ICT for transport, and the key stakeholders involved in the promotion of ICT in transport in Europe. Overall, 70 good practices have been reviewed on three different levels, those of transport sector, transport mode and thematic area. All 70 of them have been critically reviewed using specific criteria defined for that purpose, such as impacts of each ITS implementation, level of user acceptance and degree of penetration in the transport modes. Fifteen of these good practices have undergone a more thorough analysis. Several interesting findings related to ITS deployment across Europe have been derived, such as the vast majority of ITS applications implemented for road transport (64 per cent), following the predominance of road transport movements, and the use of Variable Message Signs on the Slovenian highways, where there has been a reduction of approximately 18 per cent in traffic accidents.

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Qiyang Xu and Elizabeth Dodds

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) plays an increasingly crucial role in various sectors, particularly transport due to increased mobility patterns globally. This chapter explores how open geospatial data and crowdsourcing can support ICT-enabled innovations for transport in a global context with emphasis on developing countries. Section 2 provides an overview of open data and crowdsourcing applications, which have helped to capture, document and share transport information in innovative and efficient ways. Section 3 discusses challenges related to the application of ICTs to transport initiatives and the chapter ends with recommendations for future work in section 4.

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Edited by Nikolas Thomopoulos, Mosche Givoni and Piet Rietveld

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Pelle Envall

This chapter explores how ICT can be used to improve the practice of transport planning for cycling. A new understanding of cycling behaviour and preferences is presented using GPS data. This can also be used to help evaluate the quality of urban transport systems from a cycling point of view. The chapter presents findings from a number of sub-studies within the Swedish research programme CyCity: from car-oriented to cycle-oriented cities. Also discussed are potential opportunities for more widespread use of GPS data for informing cycle planning, and even threats. GPS data from cyclists was gathered as part of CyCity and used for the development of new software for analysing cyclists’ travel behaviour and preferences. Linköping in Sweden and Ljubljana in Slovenia were the subjects of the data collection programme. These two cities have different types of cycling infrastructure and cycling modal share. One conclusion of the study is that cyclists’ GPS data is a powerful source for analysing the quality of urban transport networks, and secondly, that the use of GPS devices has the potential to cut costs for data collection and analysis. The quality of the GPS data collected was generally deemed as good or fair; however, potential limitations exist regarding the quality of GPS data when collected in dense urban areas. This needs to be considered when choosing an appropriate GPS device for recording cycle routes, and in turn makes the use of specialist software a necessity for analysing such data.

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ICT for Transport

Opportunities and Threats

Edited by Nikolas Thomopoulos, Mosche Givoni and Piet Rietveld

Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are rapidly evolving and taking centre stage in everyday life in the 21st century alongside the increasing importance and value of information. This is particularly evident in the transport sector where ICT is greatly influencing our mobility and travel choices as well as travel experiences. With this background, this book provides evidence regarding the opportunities, threats, underlying principles and practical issues faced when deploying ICT for transport applications. By focusing on infrastructure, people and processes, the contributors to this book illustrate the challenges for academics, practitioners and policy makers alike through diverse case studies from across the world.
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Wei Lu and Lee D. Han

Vehicular communication networks based on Information and Communications Technology (ICT) have drawn increasing research interest in recent years. Through modeling and simulation of two traffic mobility scenarios (vehicle platooning and dynamic traffic), we discuss the performance of vehicular communication between vehicles. Two measures are selected: throughput and end-to-end delay, to answer two important questions about how fast the information can be delivered and how far the communication can reach. These simulation results provide critical recommendations on vehicular communication equipment selection and implementation in a real world situation. Meanwhile, we study the impacts of using ICT in the field of fuel consumption. Vehicle platooning decreases fuel consumption. Faster average moving speed decreases travel time and increases fuel efficiency. This fuel consumption study can be extended to a more complicated environmental analysis for sustainable transport systems. The study ends with three recommendations for vehicular network researchers and three key challenges and opportunities for using vehicular communication technology to improve transport efficiency.

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Margarita Angeliidou, Nicos Komninos, Xavier Leal, Isidoros Passas, Maria S. Schoina and Elena Sefertzi

The present chapter explores the potential contribution of Communities of Interest (CoI) to the commercialization of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) products and services. CoI may be local, global or glocal. They refer to networks of people that share a common interest in certain topics or objectives and a common goal to advance these objectives through communication, exchange of ideas and collaboration. This chapter is based on findings of the European Community (EC) FP7 research project entitled ‘Enhancing the transfer of Intelligent Transportation System innovations to the market’ (T-TRANS), coordinated by the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, and comprises four sections. The introduction provides the necessary background information as well as a better understanding of CoI. In sections 2, 3 and 4 the landscape of innovative ITS products and services is analysed, and selected case studies and commercialization routes of ITS products and services in Greece are presented. Finally the conclusion discusses the way to accelerate commercialization of state-of-the-art ITS products and services through CoI, including a roadmap for the successful launch of new ITS products and services to potential markets.

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Nikolas Thomopoulos, Moshe Givoni and Piet Rietveld

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