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Appendix – a note on terminology

The Power of Customer-owned Banks

Johnston Birchall

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The comparative advantages of customer-owned banks

The Power of Customer-owned Banks

Johnston Birchall

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Conclusion: a cooperative counter-narrative

The Power of Customer-owned Banks

Johnston Birchall

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Customer-owned businesses – the wider picture

The Power of Customer-owned Banks

Johnston Birchall

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Johnston Birchall

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The evolution of cooperative banks

The Power of Customer-owned Banks

Johnston Birchall

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The evolution of credit unions

The Power of Customer-owned Banks

Johnston Birchall

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The evolution of mutual building societies

The Power of Customer-owned Banks

Johnston Birchall

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Finance in an Age of Austerity

The Power of Customer-owned Banks

Johnston Birchall

This is a book in search of an alternative to the discredited investor-owned banks that have brought the rich countries into crisis and the world economy into a long period of austerity. It finds customer-owned banks – credit unions, co-operative banks, building societies – have hardly been affected by the crisis and continue to operate according to their organisational DNA: low-risk, close to the customer, underpinned by real savings, and still lending to SMEs to protect jobs and local economies. They are big business – in some countries with over 40% of the market – but networked in smaller, democratic societies whose origins go back to 1850s Germany.
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Introduction

The Power of Customer-owned Banks

Johnston Birchall