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Edited by Stuart Cunningham and Terry Flew
Edited by James G. Carrier
Edited by Samuel Cameron
The chapter discusses the economic logic and political incentives that led to the emergence, peak, and contraction of Kulturkampf in the Catholic lands of Prussia between 1871 and 1878. It argues that Bismarck’s Kulturkampf reveals the fallacies of secularism as a series of enforced state policies: (1) De facto dominance of the religious majority over religious minorities that are in much higher need to preserve their public and social status; (2) Transformation of priests into bureaucratic experts. A game-theoretic model defining Kulturkampf as a static game between priests and the executive is proposed. The willingness of priests to accept the government’s offer and be transformed into bureaucratic experts varies. Individualist priests are easier to recruit as they care more about their personal welfare than social distribution by the Church, whereas the reverse holds for collectivist priests. Nevertheless, the success of the Kulturkampf depends on the effective recruitment of collectivist priests and their entry into formal politics in favor of the executive. The distinction between collectivism and individualism matters here, because priests can either care for the social welfare activity of the Church or their individual welfare. Secularization is not devoid of religion, as it consistently attracts more individualist rather than collectivist priests, and thus advocates a transition to more Protestant forms of government.
Serena Rovai and Nicola Bellini
This chapter focuses on the profile of the new generation of Chinese creative entrepreneurs in the fashion and luxury industry and investigates, in an exploratory way, the mix of endogenous factors that support their growth in the specific context of the city of Beijing. Based on a review of the elements characterising the present stage of development of this industry and on the results of interviews of two emerging brands within a concept store hosting them, the authors argue that in the struggle to affirm the positive value of Chinese creativity, this new breed of entrepreneurs is developing a syncretic mix of Chinese, Asian and Western elements rather than proposing a nationalistic rediscovery of Chineseness. A Beijing effect is also visible, giving evidence of the relationship between art and fashion. Finally, their growth and success appears in tune with the government’s domestic and international policy.