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Yasuyuki Motoyama

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From Innovation to Entrepreneurship

Connectivity-based Regional Development

Yasuyuki Motoyama

Innovation and entrepreneurship are often considered two sides of the same coin. But are the links between innovation and entrepreneurship as inextricable as we think? From Innovation to Entrepreneurship questions this seemingly interdependent relationship, highlighting the different requirements of innovation and entrepreneurship. This book disentangles theories of innovation and entrepreneurship, empirically revealing the overlaps and differences between them. Demonstrating that the pursuit of entrepreneurship is the key to economic development, Yasuyuki Motoyama explores the concept that people are at the heart of entrepreneurship ecosystems.
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Patrizio Bianchi, Sandrine Labory and Clemente Ruiz Durán

The beginning of the twenty-first century is turning out to be full of disruptions and challenges for economies and societies. Climate change, world population growth, migratory pressures, are pressing challenges; the financial crisis has had a dramatic effect and many economies have had difficulties in recovering their pre-crisis development level. Meanwhile, innovation and technological changes are accelerating, in various fields including genomics, nanotechnologies, information and communication technologies (ICTs) and big data, robotics and artificial intelligence, new materials, and others. ICTs, with the Internet of Things (IoT), the Cloud, big data, are allowing hyper-connection of people and objects and digitisation of production processes. The change induced is so disruptive that there is quite wide consensus that we are experiencing an industrial revolution, the fourth one. New means of production and new products are appearing and will continue doing so, changing individuals’ life in important aspects, namely economic, social and cultural.

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Yasuyuki Motoyama

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Transforming Industrial Policy for the Digital Age

Production, Territories and Structural Change

Edited by Patrizio Bianchi, Clemente R. Durán and Sandrine Labory

This book argues that digital globalization is inducing deep and productive transformations, making industrial policy necessary in order to reorientate development towards inclusive and more sustainable growth. The book also demonstrates that industrialization remains an important development process for emerging countries. Regarding the future of jobs, the authors show how the substitution of labour in automation is not inevitable since technology is also complementary to human capital. Policymakers should pay more attention to the new skills that will be required. A particular concern is is the rapid change in technology and business compared to institutions which take time to adapt. Territories have an important role to play in order to speed-up institutional adaptation, providing they can act coherently with the other levels of government.
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Maria Estela Ferreira

This chapter aims to illustrate the main outcomes and the characteristics and factors of the resilience of the footwear industry in the northern region of Portugal as performed in the last 30 years. This industry acts in a cluster located in a number of towns around Porto, within a maximum distance of 50 km from this city. Such cluster is responsible for more than 90 per cent of Portuguese footwear exports. Along the analyzed period, and among other difficulties, two main shocks are identified which the industry had to face: the full membership of China in the WTO, in 2001, which carried the delocalization of most foreign footwear companies, mainly to the Far East, and the sub-prime world crisis in 2008. The industry survived and surpassed these shocks thanks to a thorough preparedness sustained by the action of entrepreneurs, together with a strong and active association and a technological center, which provided management and technical support and strengthened links between them, stimulating coordinated actions. This chapter suggests, through a non-linear approach, that Portuguese footwear exports are about to reach the level they would have attained if China hadn’t joined the WTO.

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Patrizio Bianchi and Sandrine Labory

Chapter 6 concludes the book by summarising the main ideas and pointing to the main issues that should be further examined in this era of digital globalisation spurred by the fourth industrial revolution. One issue is the generalisation of the specific case of comprehensive industrial policy as that implemented in the Emilia-Romagna region. Another issue regards privacy and monopoly power in the new industrial system.

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Patrizio Bianchi and Sandrine Labory

Chapter 5 puts together the analysis carried out in previous chapters to discuss the industrial policy implications of the fourth industrial revolution. The main idea is that manufacturing revolutions call for comprehensive industrial policy. A focus is made on industrial policy at the regional level, and it is shown, through the experience of the Emilia-Romagna region in Italy, that regions have a role to play in designing and implementing comprehensive industrial policies effective in preparing their industries and population for the industrial revolution. It is argued that in times of important change the objective of industrial policy should be resilience, namely the capacity of the economy and the society to adapt.

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Tüzin Baycan and Berna Sezen Özen

This chapter focuses on to what extend the innovation performance of EU countries has been affected by the global economic crisis and aims to investigate the relationship between the crisis and innovation performance while addressing the changes in the indicators of the Innovation Union Scoreboard Index after 2008. Focusing on these changes over the last ten years, the chapter compares and evaluates the innovation performance of EU countries and highlights which countries were more resilient in dealing with the recession.

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Yannis Psycharis, Dimitris Kallioras and Panagiotis Pantazis

This chapter sets out to provide empirical evidence regarding the impact of economic crisis on the employment changes in the NUTS III Greek regions, during the period 2008_2012. With the application of trade-adjusted shift-share analysis, the chapter provides additional explanatory evidence on whether openness and trade have affected the resilience of regions. Results indicate that economic crisis has impacted asymmetrically on regional employment losses, leading to a widening of regional employment disparities. Construction and manufacturing have been hit severely by the crisis. Agriculture constitutes a resilient sector, while knowledge- and technology-intensive sectors are also more resilient to crisis. The less well-off regions dependent on more traditional sectors proved to be more resilient. However, trade relations and openness are offering as stabilizers to economic downturn.