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Edited by Brendan Cantwell, Hamish Coates and Roger King
Gender politics is a long-standing feature of universities, but since attempts at alleviating gendered inequality are well established (sometimes leading to complacency), and because gender is intersectional with other inequalities, the analysis of gender politics amongst students and academics is complex. Indeed, gender-related inequalities are far from resolved in higher education. Increased autonomy in public universities in many countries has been accompanied by changed governance regimes involving external stakeholders (‘boardism’) as well as massification of student intakes, new managerialism, and quality audits of teaching and research. Equality itself is frequently taken for granted, and external stakeholders often seek only ‘letter of the law’ compliance. Governments increasingly see higher education as a means of growing the knowledge economy, training graduates for the labour market and stimulating industrial innovation; with eroding inequality only stressed when it does not conflict with these three functions. The chapter explores four contexts of gender politics in universities: academic work, performativity and careers; leadership and leadership training; the classroom, sexual harassment and violence, and laddish behavior on campus; and finally the politics of large-scale collaborative, cross-cultural equality projects. Some future research agendas are also suggested.
Brendan Cantwell and Adam Grimm
This chapter examines the goepolitics of higher academic science. It considers the ways in which academic science may be geopolitical, examines concepts used to understand the geopolitics of science, and describes the contemporary landscape. The chaper concludes by developing further concepts to understand the geopolitics of academic science. As many countries exhibit nationalist politics, while globalized science remains ascendant, it may be worth considering ways in which global science is harnessed by nationalists.
The broad objective of this chapter is to carry out an analysis of the changing context of higher education (HE) and how the major forces of change are transforming universities and national education systems. Because what occurs in HE cannot be seen in isolation in society and the economy, this chapter also considers the competing demands from the state, civil society and market forces on the mission of universities. These demands are shaping a new global borderless context. Against this backdrop this chapter also considers how universities are adapting to trade liberalization, preferential agreements, neoliberalism and market forces. The combination of these forces is reshaping the idea of the university and how universities are seeking to interconnect across borders, and for this purpose the author uses Castells’s network approach to consider existing university alliances (global, multi-regional or domestic in scope). The chapter concludes with some parting thoughts about the changing geopolitical environment and what it means to universities over the next few decades.
Susan L. Robertson
This chapter examines the rise of supra-national regions and the role that higher education is increasingly playing in constituting regions on the one hand, and reconstituting higher education on the other, in different parts of the world. It argues that, oddly enough, although a great deal is written on regions such as the European Higher Education Area, there has been little exploration of what insights this work generates for understanding regions, and the nature of the relationship between European higher education projects and those in other parts of the world. In the chapter a case is made for a particular theoretical approach and methodological lens – that of ‘variegated regionalism’ _ to study regions empirically, rather than being trapped in a Europe-dominated paradigm which measures all other regional developments against this assumed one way. Using studies on higher education regionalisms in different geographic locations of the globe, the author shows that very different cultural political and economic trajectories matter, and determine different regional formations in higher education.
Dirk Van Damme and Marijk Van der Wende
This chapter discusses the recent and unanticipated changes in the global political context in which higher education operates in the early twenty-first century. In this light, prior scenarios for higher education and taken-for-granted expectations and assumptions regarding the impact of globalization are reviewed. Apparent and growing imbalances and inequalities in higher education lead to a critical reflection on the global governance of higher education, which has so far failed to address these effectively. At the same time, the data provided in this chapter clearly indicate that global trends and flows in higher education and research require stronger rather than weaker approaches to global governance. Moreover, higher education’s mission in both research and teaching requires a global dimension. It cannot educate students as global citizens or contribute to solving global challenges through its research, if it is bound to operate exclusively within national higher education systems. The chapter concludes by exploring questions around possible new models and shifting political leadership roles in the future global governance of higher education.
Edited by Brendan Cantwell, Hamish Coates and Roger King
The last decades have seen rising enrolment numbers in higher education across all countries and continents. System dynamics have changed, and there have been challenges with public funding, growth in private providers, and implementation of tuition fees. This leads to questions of whether public funding can cope, and alternatives that can ensure sustainable higher education. This chapter reviews past and recent developments concerning higher education, suggests that public funding is likely not to meet the needs, and provides new ideas on how to meet future funding requirements.
Brendan Cantwell, Hamish Coates and Roger King
This chapter introduces this Handbook on the Politics of Higher Education. It starts by advancing ideas and frames to position the following chapters, and then considers broad rationales for the book. The chapter closes by surveying the Handbook’s five parts, and providing a brief overview of the 28 chapters that follow.
Benedetto Lepori and Ben Jongbloed
This chapter discusses the multiple objectives and dilemmas surrounding the resource allocation decisions in higher education taken by policy-makers and public authorities at the national level. Resourcing decisions, in particular the implementation of new policy instruments, are very much driven by particular assumptions and normative points of view, bringing in issues of political choice and resolving competing demands. The authors present a critical look at the politics of funding higher education, arguing that funding reforms inspired by policy rationales such as new public management (NPM) are always implemented in higher education systems that are characterized by a multitude of competing logics, traditions and reputations. In addition, the mixed public_private character of higher education further complicates the effects of funding decisions. All of this is making simple market-oriented solutions problematic, pointing at the limitations of government intervention and funding policies and calling for a more pragmatic approach to resource allocation in higher education.