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Edited by Iredale R. Robyn and Guo Fei
Raul P. Lejano and Sung Jin Park
Policy texts often mediate the intricate relationship between the crafting of a policy and its enactment. Such texts may serve as boundary objects that afford close interaction among policy actors. On the other hand, strongly textualist policy domains can rigidly disempower these same actors, leading to shallow, rather than deep, implementation. At their most extreme, autopoietic texts serve as vehicles for furthering ideological systems of thought. This approach affords a critical analysis of the hitherto unexamined effects of policy texts.
The chapter presents an overview over the main strands of frame analysis in the social sciences and policy studies, their respective understanding of frame, overall purpose, research objectives, methodological assumptions, and research practices. Whether frame operates as a critical concept depends on the larger theoretical framework in which it is embedded.
The onset of anthropogenic climate change and international efforts to reduce carbon emissions has accelerated efforts to promote sustainable forms of transport and mobility. Traditionally, nation states, local authorities, and their agencies have regarded behavioral change as a key tool for reducing carbon emissions from transport. In so doing, they have focused attention on information-led campaigns, which have sought to encourage individuals to modify their travel behaviors. Yet social practice theorists have argued that individualistic approaches to behavioral change, which are often rooted in positivistic framings of linear decision making, are unlikely to be successful because they overlook the critical importance of socio-economic contexts. This chapter explores the ways in which social practice theories can set a new trajectory for exploring sustainable mobility, through opening up the debate to consider how built environments and economic systems lead to ever increasing demands for mobility and how, if we are ambitious, we can use the sustainable mobility question to start a new debate about why we need to travel in the ways we do, and how the places we live can be developed as spaces for dwelling, rather than spaces of mobility.
Yeqing Huang and Fei Guo
The concept of social exclusion has been widely applied to explain the marginalization of rural–urban migrants in contemporary China, yet aspects of migrants’ own perceptions of their identity have received little attention. This chapter examines some of the underlying mechanisms of social exclusion in contemporary Chinese urban society by deconstructing perceived boundaries between rural–urban migrants and local urbanites. Qualitative analysis of data collected from a rural village in central China suggest that migrants’ identities are shaped and reshaped by their hukou and employment status, home ownership and social network. These factors are interwoven, leading to more than one identity in migrants’ narrative discourses. Most survey respondents, when asked to choose either a rural or an urban identity, were ambivalent, indicating apparently blurry identity boundaries. The findings highlight an intertwining effect of institutional and market forces in the process of rural–urban migrants’ identity formation and transformation in urban China.
Veronique Schutjens, Gerald Mollenhorst and Beate Volker
In the modern Western world, urban residential neighbourhoods have witnessed a remarkable increase in the number of small-scale businesses, and these businesses are there to stay. For many small entrepreneurs, the neighbourhood offers both a favourable business context and strong and sustainable anchors for economic activities. Entrepreneurs and their firms are affected by the socio-economic neighbourhood characteristics and by their relationships with other local firms, entrepreneurs and residents. A thorough examination of the interdependencies between local networks and the presence and success of local firms requires large-scale longitudinal data on networks of entrepreneurs. This chapter discusses the methods and measurements that enable such examinations. It uses unique data collected among 200 entrepreneurs in Dutch residential neighbourhoods. New findings are presented on changes in the amount of (local) social capital that is present in the networks of these entrepreneurs, measured by the positions or occupations to which entrepreneurs have access. The main findings are that neighbourhood contacts seem to broaden over time, and, in particular, home-based entrepreneurs and entrepreneurs running firms that serve local markets increase their access to local social capital. The chapter concludes that future research should focus on the explanations of the changes in the social networks of (neighbourhood) entrepreneurs and on the link between the types of network change and the location strategy and success of entrepreneurs and their firms.
Yu Zhu, Baoyu Xiao and Liyue Lin
This chapter uses data from the 2010 and 2000 population censuses to examine changing spatial and temporal patterns of China’s floating population and their implications for understanding internal migration in China. The results suggest that the size of the floating population continued to increase with fast speed in the period between the two censuses, with coastal provinces in eastern China as their main receiving areas and inland provinces (especially those in central China) as their main source areas. The results also indicate that the proportion of the floating population absorbed by the eastern region declined in the years leading to the 2010 census, suggesting a shrinking migration flow to the eastern part of China. In the meantime, while the Pearl-River Delta region and the Yangtze River Delta region continued to be the two most important destination areas of China’s floating population, their relative position has changed, with the Yangtze River Delta region overtaking the Pearl-River Delta region to become the biggest receiving area of the floating population. In terms of temporal migration patterns of the floating population, the results suggest that short-term migrants still constituted the majority of the floating population, suggesting that their unsettled and unstable nature had not changed much, and that there is still a long way to go for them to settle down, either in their current or future places of destination or their place of origin. The chapter finally suggests that these temporal and spatial patterns of the floating population has important implications for understanding migrants’ identity, their future development and their impact on both sending and receiving areas.
Dawid Wladyka and Ricard Morén-Alegret
Recent European research on diversity indicates that neighbourhoods’ spatial and social tissue is influential on inter-ethnic interactions. Additionally, studies based on the Conflict and Contact theories as well as researches based on the ‘superdiversity’ theoretical proposal underscore the contradictory outcomes which diversity may provide regarding the development of local communities. While ethnic diversity within some economic sectors has been observed as empowering social cohesion and economic development, some ways of managing diversity in the public realm have been found to be an obstacle. Chinese immigration to Barcelona increased visibly in the twenty-first century. In the Sagrada Familia neighbourhood registered foreign immigrants were roughly 18 per cent of the total population in 2013, according to the National Statistical Institute (INE). This is similar to the Barcelona average rate. Chinese residents were the most numerous foreign residents in the neighbourhood, followed by Italians and Peruvians. This chapter presents local perceptions on Chinese immigrants and their footprint on the Sagrada Familia neighbourhood’s social and economic sustainability. It is based on results extracted from the analysis of various semi-structured interviews with natives and immigrants, supplemented by the analysis of statistical and documental sources. The results show that Chinese residents’ purchasing power could provide an opportunity for empowering (or improving?) the neighbourhood’s development but the wariness of other residents towards Chinese hampers such a possibility. Unjustified rumors, a lack of local authorities’ involvement and the economic downturn have been observed as escalating conflicting attitudes towards Chinese and limiting mutual collaboration. What impact has this had on the identity of the Chinese? Have they clung together more, strengthened their Chineseness? Relied on other Chinese more? Kept close links to China?
Weiwei Zhang and John R. Logan
This chapter focuses on the Chinese population in the United States, which predominantly consists of first generation immigrants despite the long history of Chinese immigration in this country. We identify several important features of this population. First, its rapid growth, from less than a quarter million in 1960 (of whom a majority in fact were born in the US) to over 4 million in 2012 (60% foreign-born). Second, we look at the strong regional concentration. Almost entirely a West Coast population in the nineteenth century, nearly half of Chinese still live in the West, and about a quarter in the Northeast. The pattern is changing slowly, with some notable growth in the South. Third, the relatively high socio-economic status of this minority group, similar on average to other Asian immigrants, and outperforming non-Hispanic whites on some measures is examined. However a notable feature of Chinese in America, quite unlike other racial/ethnic groups, is its polarization – large shares with very high and very low incomes. These extremes reflect differences in immigrant origins, timing of arrival, and the conditions under which they entered the country. Finally we call attention to settlement patterns within the four metropolitan regions with the largest number of Chinese residents, emphasizing their high level of suburbanization, separation from other groups, and location in relatively advantaged enclaves in both cities and suburbs.